Regional industrial policy in terms of integrating into the global market.
Elena Sergeevna Kuznetsova,
Кузнецова Елена Сергеевна,
доцент кафедры Менеджмента, коммерции, маркетинга и рекламы Мурманского Государственного Технического Университета.
The experience of highly developed states which have been integrated into the world economy shows that their industrial policy has a precise territorial tendency. It means that industrial system of a country is shown as a complex of territorial industrial blocks. Each of them demonstrates the definite economic activity and has its own parameters of competitiveness.
The author considers that for successful integration into the world economy it’s very important for the country to have not only competitive engineering and companies but regions which are able to use this engineering and companies effectively. Up-to-date states are interested in getting out into the global market as many regions as possible (as important links in trade, financial and technological relations). Just such regions determine the competitiveness of the countries in geo-economic area.
Thus, the spatial organization of a
country determines the efficiency of its integration into the world economy. The
most industrial countries went through so called “regional revolution” 20-30
years ago. It was the crisis of old industrial regions. But at the same time some
new regions-leaders were arisen to compete on the global market. For some
The regional policy must, firstly, promote the internal development of the regions and increase the quality of living of their population. Secondly, it must promote the growth of competitiveness of the Russian industrial enterprises in the Russian and international markets.
It’s necessary to take into consideration that two “critical points” influence the economy of any Russian region: insufficiency of some resources and actual competition. So, the regional industrial policy must create the terms for concentration of limited resources in the frame of chosen directions. Resources must be directed to the branches which are more promising. Certainly, it means transferring capital from the other branches. Besides, we need to take into accounts that the time for making decisions in the field of regional policy is limited for the reason of competition in the national and world markets. Noticeable delay can worsen the perspectives of integration of many Russian regions into the world economy.
Up-to-date geo-economics chooses two main models for the organization of territories - integrated (centralized) and net ones.
The first model arose in the time of industrialization. It is connected with dominating large-scale mass production in the regional economy. This production is a place of work for the considerable part of the population in the region, a source of getting taxes for its budget and a factor of developing the regional infrastructure. The economy of such region is called “monotype economy”.
The integrated (centralized) regions have got the following features:
- lack of competition in dominating branches inside the region;
- regional authorities depending on specific companies;
- low mobility of the employees;
- regional strategic planning depending on the economic strategies of the dominating companies;
- low ability for using new technologies and innovations.
According to the experts’
The second model of territorial organization is a net one. This model is based on production networks (including production complexes and enterprises) connected with a definite geographical territory. Such nets are called “networks of place”. The enterprises specializing in producing that or another item are located on a special territory. This fact allows connecting a definite branch of industry with the region. The economic relations inside the networks of place are based on various agreements about cooperation and subcontract relationships. In fact, only a few companies deliver ready goods for the market, the rest ones carry out different transactions for the group of enterprises having organized this production.
In the “net regions” the authority that deals with economic problems is not concentrated but distributed. Economic power of such regions is determined not by the volume of production but by the mobilized resources of the network and its ability to influence the global exchanges. The features of these regions are so called “flexible specialization” (instead of strict specialization) and ability to carry out innovations. The enterprises that cooperate and compete inside the network make the industrial cluster.
The author considers that a cluster approach is one of the most effective approaches for developing competitiveness of a region in the terms of international integration. Clusters play a role of “points of growth” for the national market and they are the basis for international expansion. After the first clusters the new ones often appear, that leads to increasing competitiveness of a country.
As the author see it, nowadays in
the terms of integrating into the world economy one of the most important aims
of industrial policy of the
There are several conditions that
can both promote and create obstacles for developing clusters in
Positive conditions include:
- well-formed scientific infrastructure;
- existing technological infrastructure;
- psychological preparedness for cooperation.
The main restrained conditions are the next:
- rather low level of developing associative structures (trade stalls, industrial associations, etc.);
- short-term planning (lack of strategic approaches).
As practice shows the real benefits
from developing clusters will be seen only in 5 - 7 years. This fact makes pay attention
to the problem of working out regional strategies in
The use of cluster approach can widen international cooperation of frontier Russian regions considerably. When speaking about external economic activity people often mean international trade in first place. However, the international industrial cooperation will play a great role in the nearest future. International industrial cooperation is much more stable than just trade cooperation. Industrial clusters can provide benefits for all frontier territories. They can be a basis for different programs and projects in international cooperation.
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Поступила в редакцию 17 января