Information engineering and activite of libraries
PH. Doctor, Baku State University.
Информационная инженерия (современная библиотечная деятельность)
Казими Парвиз Фирудин оглу,
доктор философии. Бакинский государственный университет.
Некоторое время библиотечная деятельность отличалась от классической библиотечной работы по форме и в широком плане, по сути, которую специалисты обсуждали последние 10-15 лет. Данная статья рассматривает современную библиотечную деятельность, как информационную инженерию и определяет 10 подразделений:
1. Теория информации.
2. Классификация информации.
3. Информационная среда и пространство.
4. Информационное моделирование.
5. Информационное обслуживание.
6. Информационный рынок.
7. Информационные ресурсы.
8. Информационно-поисковые системы.
9. Информационные угрозы.
10. Информационная безопасность и защита.
Key words: Information engineering, library service, library market, Information threats, Information modeling.
Formation of information, model, conservation and using of compound psychological, social and physiological processes in the articles which happen in libraries join the compound information in enterprice.
In recent years the notion “classic library” and “modern library” in librarians’ speeches are often presented in different characteristics. We accept this difference that attract our attention. The formation of classic libraries, its structure and positions is clear to experts of this field. In the process of global information there are not yet expressed “modern libraries” and in the process of collection of information, its sorting, systematization, protection, promotion and use has become an area of activity that require information engineering. If we have to accept the information engineering in the context of the following sub-areas, we can reveal an interesting view in the background of enrichment of classic library activity by modern technologies.
The sub-areas that covers the problem:
1. The theory of information (object studying)
2. The Classification of information (subject studying)
3. Information environment and information space
4. Information modeling
5. Information service
6. Information market (paid and free services)
7. Information resources
8. Information research systems
9. Information threats and information wars
10. Information security and information protection
1. The book by name “Introduction to the theory of information” (coding of sources) was published in 1980 at the St. Petersburg University publishing office by the researchers V.D. Kolesnik and G.Sh. Poltirev who investigated the theory of information. The researchers consider that for the first time the problem of the theory of information was the object of scientific research by American engineer-mathematician Klod Shennon in 1948. For them the object of information is a theory. This is a mathematical information and it played its role in the development of cybernetics in 1960 – 70-s.
In the context of information engineering the problem of the theory of information is reflected in the book called “The basis of informationology” by the prominent Russian scientist I.I. Youzvishin which was published in 2000 in Moscow at “High School” publishing office.
2. The people were engaged in the classification of information since ancient times. Nevertheless the problem of scientific and logical justification is currently subject of discussions.
In 1980-s the massively applied library in the Azerbaijan Libraries had become the form of expression of the Soviet ideology. The main departments of the suggested variant for scientific libraries was shown in Russian-cyrillic alphabet. And the variant offered for the Public was sufficiently politicized. From the beginning of XXI century the conducting of the universally accepted classification is observed. The role of UNESCO and the international library organizations are of great importance in this area.
3. The information environment and information space in contemporary sense are of extremely generalized character. We can say that the places which are beyond the processes of global information doesn’t exist or very few. There is North Korea which itself from the world in order to be protected from the influence of a great mass of information and there are also Ukraine and Georgia which expose the information environment and information space uncontrolled. The experience shows that we must not be isolated from the processes of global information, but to be an active participant of it and it is necessary to monitor periodically the information space. If the press in the frame of concrete time influence the information environment, the libraries can possess a longer-term influence as a result of the gathering, systematization and purposeful propaganda of the press.
From this point of view the information engineering must study and estimate the information space and information environment, information influences and the factor of “information hunger”.
4. The people were engaged in the information modeling since ancient times. For this purpose it is important for an expert to determine the security of information. We come across with complicated information models in medieval poetry, European school of philosophy and encyclopedic publications. Bibliographic description and bibliographic service are the best models of information in the activity of library. In order to transform the indefinite interrogation of the reader into definite interrogation it is required to establish a complicated information model. In order to create a socio-psychological model of the reader the library statistics serve as an important element.
5. The libraries are the most ancient information service institutions and it must be disinterested.
State interests, national interests and human values must be considered in every library activity. And this requires the professionalism of an expert.
From this point of view the modern forms of information service must be studied and estimated.
6. In XX century the nature commodity of information had noticed itself more vividly. Nowadays the value of information is one of the important factors. The researcher T. Aliyev who published the book “The Economy of information” in 2009 at “Elm” publishing office covers the problem extensively and pithy. But here the information market is not completely covered.
There is another source which can logically complete this topic. It is the book by T.E. Greenberg called “Political technologies, PR and advertisement” which was published in 2009 in Moscow at “Aspect” publishing office. The social and political information, PR and advertisement technologies are reflected in this book. And it shows the importance of the market. Despite of this the evaluation of information is conditional, subjective and changed through the time and place. In fact, information is invaluable and it is important element in the formation, forming, development and protection of society.
7. Experts also call the information resources noosphere. Being the product of human mind, a great part of information supply is collected, systematized and protected in Library funds. The main carriers of information resources – document-information carriers – are widely described in the homonymous book (published in 2010) by docents A.M. Rustamov and M.A. Mammadov. If we add here the social information resources there will be open a wider view.
8. Before the application of modern and complicated technologies the information research systems passed through the long historical evolutionary path. S. Kramer in his book “The History begins in Schumer” notes that created and formed in libraries classic catalog-file system differ from modern electron catalogs and files according to its coverage, possible high-speed information searches, practicality and a number of other parameters. But this system has not yet lost its significance.
Information threats are appreciated only like the electronic information systems by a group of experts. If we evaluate the information threats in the historical process we can see its existence in all periods of time. But in informationilized world its power of influence increases and sometimes become a decisive factor.
Information threats exposing the opposite influence has become an information struggle. In this struggle appears the concrete factor called information weapon.
These problems studied and guided in daily activities by political scientists, sociologists as well as psychologists as an important area of information engineering in library practice.
9. The information threats existed in all periods. Only the power of influence of these threats have much more increased nowadays. Applied in the practice of classic libraries, the separation of information from disinformation, wrong and manipulated information was also used nowadays. Modern librarian as well as being an active citizen is aware of geo-political, geo-economic, geo-cultural processes and is an active participant of it. From this point of view to avoid information threats and not to be an instrument of information wars are the features of a modern librarian. During the gathering, sorting, protection and service of information the consultations held by librarians as well as the professional level of experts allows to avoid such threats.
10. The information security and information protection are the factors which derived from each other. At various periods there was used various methods to provide information security.
In the III – IV centuries to protect “Gospels” wrote by various Jesus’ apostles from church pursuit, Christian sectarians immured them into the walls or digged them into the ground, but in the XIII century the French scientist R. Becon used for this purpose seven kind of cryptographic writing.
In the VII century the first verses of Koran were protected by learning them by heart by thousands of “Hafizi Koran” (keepers of Koran).
Nowadays, the information safety, in a broader sense, is particularly important for being evaluated in the context of national security and state security. Eventually information engineering will increasingly be of greater importance. The legal guarantee and regulation of information security and its protection are not of less importance.
Also the information security and protection in traditional libraries are the problems which are not out of agenda. The example “We possess the things we save” becomes even more actual over the years.
As can be seen the Library Science of the XXI century should carry out the wide application of the problem of information engineering by studying it in library practice in complex form.
So, summarizing the above said we can conclude that the problem of information should be studied in complex form and determined the priority areas and the experts of these areas.
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Поступила в редакцию 04.10.2011 г.