Зарубежный опыт реформирования жилищно-коммунального хозяйства (на примере Германии)
Жарова Екатерина Андреевна,
магистрант Санкт-Петербургского государственного экономического университета.
The foreign experience of reforming the housing and utilities infrastructure (by the example of Germany)
Zharova Ekaterina Andreevna.
A problem of the current study of international experience of housing and communal services and account for the modernization of the national economy is current interest in the national scientific community.
Foreign experience of the industry and the results of the housing and communal services in Germany are the most successful examples.
The aim of the reform of the housing and communal sector was the creation of the German market housing and utility services with the presence of competition in the various spheres of the economy.
The basis of the reform was to build an effective system of municipal government. For this purpose there were carried out a number of actions:
1. Demonopolization and incorporation service providers.
On the basis of state-owned enterprises there have been established so-called urban and utility companies in the form of joint stock companies. Ownership of such companies has been mixed, and they specialize in providing a full range of services: electricity, heat and gas.
In addition to its primary business, city utilities give such services as cleaning services of the building surrounding grounds, garbage disposal and waste management, maintenance of in-house infrastructure, facilities management, and telecommunications. Such organizations have a holding structure, distributed by the type of activity, which allows to fund less developed or socially significant areas through more successful.
2. Modernization of communal infrastructure and housing facilities stock.
After the unification of East and West Germany, particular attention was paid to the privatization of municipal and public housing. Unlike Ukraine and Russia, privatization was carried out through the sale of state and municipal housing.
3. Improving pricing to cover existing costs.
In order to improve pricing, above all, it was necessary to work out the schematic model to cover the operating costs in the medium term. In order to do this, the first step was the default in providing social assistance through utility companies and the transition to targeted subsidy assistance. Subsidies are provided to low-income families, depending on their income.
In consequence of this action the released budget funds have been sent to an investment in the modernization of networks and equipment. Funds are provided through grants and low-interest loans. Loans to modernize the housing stock, provided both the German federal government, municipalities, energy suppliers, and the European Community.
It is also necessary to note the significant increase in the cost of services and at the same time the transition to the payments for the services according to their actual consumption. This let the population to economy of resources and their individual consumption.
A concession can be considered as a hidden source of direct revenue for municipalities. In particular, in Germany in 2006, income from municipal utilities accounted for 5% of the revenues of local budgets, and 2% of the revenues of local budgets, that is, 40% were concession fees. Concession fees charged by local authorities with the enterprises of water, gas and electricity for the right to pass their products through the territory of the municipality. Due to the fact that such companies are generally monopolists in their field, charging concession fees deduction is interpreted as high monopoly profits. EU law on energy in 1998 ensures local authorities to continue the collection of concession fees, but in the long term, their fate is uncertain.
Talking about the cost structure of municipalities in Western Europe, it is important to note one more thing - a significant sharecapital investments, which in most cases are more than 20% share of total municipal budget. Such capital investments allow you to control the entire support of the local infrastructure, to ensure the normal reproduction of the property.
In Germany the city budget provides capital transfers for utilities at level which guarantees that the average income of a subsidized household, after payment of the rest of accounts it for employment of housing and consumption of utilities, won't appear less certain size. Decisions concerning criteria of access and size of paid subsidies accept the German municipalities.
The housing grant represents a difference between the actual payment for housing and utilities and potential expenses of households. The household has the right to address for a housing grant, if its income after payment of housing makes less than 75% from expenses on the food in a crisis (minimum) consumer basket.
For increase of addressing of the municipal social help in Germany at municipal level the guaranteed minimum income (GMI) concept (Guaranteed Minimum Income - GMI) began to be implemented. The grant on GMD as a difference between the income on the family member and uniform level of the guaranteed monthly shower income established by the Cabinet pays off.
Analysis of the experience of financial management of housing and communal services in Germany suggests the existence of certain features that should be considered in addressing the problems of modernization of the national economy through the use of foreign experience.
Поступила в редакцию 22.03.2013 г.