Îáðàçû â ðîìàíàõ-àíòèóòîïèÿõ ïåðâîé ïîëîâèíû XX âåêà (ñêâîçü ïðèçìó ïñèõîëîãèçìà Í. ×åðíûøåâñêîãî è À. Åñèíà)
Êó÷åð Âàñèëèé Âàñèëüåâè÷,
àññèñòåíò êàôåäðû àíãëèéñêîé ôèëîëîãèè Êðåìåíåöêîãî îáëàñòíîãî ãóìàíèòàðíî-ïåäàãîãè÷åñêîãî èíñòèòóòà èì. Òàðàñà Øåâ÷åíêî.
Images in dystopia novels of the first half of the XXth century (according to psyhological approach by N. Chernushevky and A. Esin)
Kucher Vasyl Vasyliovych ,
Kremenets humanitarian-pedagogical institute named after T. Shevchenko, assistant of the Dapartment of English Philology.
Ñòàòüÿ ïîñâÿùåíà èññëåäîâàíèþ è àíàëèçó õàðàêòåðèñòèê îíòîëîãèè ñîöèîñèõîëîãè÷åñêîé ìîäåëè ãåðîÿ ðîìàíîâ-àíòèóòîïèé. Äëÿ àíàëèçà ïñèõîëîãè÷åñêîé ìîäåëè ÷åëîâåêà ðîìàíû «Äèâíûé íîâûé ìèð» (1932 ã.) Î. Õàêñëè, «1984» (1949 ã.) Äæ. Îðóýëëà, à òàêæå «Ñîëíå÷íàÿ ìàøèíà» (1929) Â. Âèííè÷åíêî ðàññìàòðèâàþòñÿ è àíàëèçèðóþòñÿ íà îñíîâå èäåéíî-ýñòåòè÷åñêîãî òðàêòîâàíèÿ ïñèõîëîãèçìà, ïðåäëîæåííîãî Í.Ã. ×åðíûøåâñêèì è À.Á. Åñèíûì.
Êëþ÷åâûå ñëîâà: ãåðîé, àíòèóòîïèÿ, îáðàç, ñîçíàíèå, òîëïà, ïñèõîëîãèçì, ñòðàäàíèÿ.
This article is devoted to research and analysis of characteristics of ontology model sociopsyhological model of hero novels in dystopia novels. To analyze the psychological model of human novels ‹‹Brave New World›› (1932) by Aldous Huxley, ‹‹1984›› (1949) by George Orwell, as well as the "Sun Machine" (1929) By V. Vynnychenko reviewed and analyzed on the basis of ideological aesthetic interpretation of psychologism proposed byN.G. Chernyshevsky and A.Esin.
Keywords: hero, dystopia, image consciousness, crowd psychology, suffering.
Dystopia of the first half of the XXth century expressed tragic trend of historical development of society – mass substitution of individual consciousness. In the dystopia ‹‹the writer places a person who is born for freedom and for history in the world where freedom is absent, and the history canceled ... and everyone is controlled by the all-seeing eye›› [6, p. 45]. There appears not an amorphous state, but government, serving as pivot around which society is built. In none of dystopias economic interests are not a priority in relation to the struggle that drives events in the art world of the novel. But cruel logic of power is investigated accurately. Even before George Orwell, who is considered the founder of theory of government of the XXth century. The problem interested the authors of dystopia.
Analysis of various characteristics of dystopia and utopian character is actual for number of humanities starting from literature and ending with psychology and philosophy. Among literary works, question of classification and characterization of different types of heroes is enlightened in one of chapters of monograph by G. Sabat ‹‹In the maze of utopia and dystopia››. In particular, the author shares the heroes on the rebellious, troubled and hushed. The psychological portrait of man in utopia and dystopia in comparative perspective explored A.F. Lyubimova in ‹‹Dystopia genre in the XXth century: Content and poetological aspects››. Place and problems of man in society in the modern French novel-satire analyzes G.M. Ryahuzova in work ‹‹Crooked Mirrors›› of satire and reality››. H. Baran in the study ‹‹Solar Engine›› by V. Vynnychenko: problems, poetics, genre identity›› examines cult images of investigated novel.
The purpose and objectives of study is to investigate and analyze characteristics of ontology of sociopsychological model of man-hero in dystopia. It should be noted that in spite of numerous publications on the abovementioned topic, namely, separation of "rebellious" type of hero – cult images, study of various characteristics of characters in this novels is incomplete. In the works related to the subject, the focus on specific forms of psychological state of man is made, his feelings and emotions are investigated, but is not reflected their inner connection, resulting in contradictions, in continuous development. In order to analyze the psychological model of human in studied works, we will analyze novel "Brave New World" (1932) by A. Huxley, "1984" (1949) by George Orwell and "Sun Machine" (1929) by V. Vynnychenko and analyze them on the basis of ideological and aesthetic interpretation of psychologism proposed by N.G. Chernyshevsky and A.B. Esin.
Current stage of study of literature is characterized by increased attention to features of depicted world of novel, the specifics of display throughout the depth of man's inner world, ability of writers to describe various psychological states and processes using artistic means.
Ideological and aesthetic treatment of psychologism by N.G. Tchernyshevskyi has not lost its significance in the modern sense. He pointed it varieties: ‹‹One poet likes description of characters, other – influence of social relations and struggles on life of characters, the third – connection of actions with the senses, the fourth – analysis of the passions›› [3, p. 425]. The character of novel is not analysed in the gap of real historical conditions and reality. His spiritual development is carried out in connection with the life of era. The relationship between reality and spiritual state of protagonist is indicated. The contradictions of social life is a struggle pulse of internal contradictions in the mind of man as well as spiritual life is always interacting with the outside world.
In the study of psychological facts should be taken into consideration subjective mental, physiological aspects of character and impact of properties like society. The main feature of depicted in dystopia society – lack of freedom. The authors show that lack of freedom can lead to depersonalization of man. People of future appear only in mass moving in the stream. These novels have no portraits characteristics. The central conflict of dystopia – clash of man and reality. In this regard, special place in the novels takes psychological aspect. In particular, in the novel ‹‹1984›› Winston Smith himself experiencing impact of violence, experiencing it as a personal tragedy. In George Orwell's work lower castes are entirely isolated from intellectual activity. But, paradoxically, according to Winston, they are freer than he and Julia – invisible party functionaries, the power in which belongs to the top – Internal party. Power and equality in dystopia – are incompatible concepts.
Principles of management and reflections on its psychological basis, are in Zamyatin’s novel. The government tightly regulating behavior of members of society, creates civilization of robots. The top of state policy is decision to destroy man’s fantasy center. Anti-utopian society is insured against accidents and control over the birth of children, which is put under supervision of authorities. This idea is brought to the point of absurdity in A. Huxley, which shows society that regulates social standards of human life from conception in a glass flask: the lower caste to which it belongs, the less supply of oxygen, as it creates degradation of consciousness. Alphas and betas are designed to perform complex functions, gammas, deltas and upsilons – middle and lower strata of society. Hypnotic sessions during sleep lead to the fact that person can be controlled: ‹‹brain that thinks, wants, decides – will contain what inspired ... Inspired by state!›› [4, p. 25].
The authors of dystopia think over the function of intellectual elite in country, which includes representatives of dystopian new Church and new God on earth. They are typologically similar images: the ruler of Western Europe Mustapha Mond and Napoleon, Rudy. They are main participants of intellectual dialogue that has philosophical nature in every dystopian: man and society as a system of specific historical and universal values. They all have good education, their arguments are logically valid. Their main weapon – mind, power. Each scene is a dystopian clash of those who think differently from the people who represent power of state. An example of intellectual and psychological experiment is Winston, who became a victim when he tried to oppose his personal truth to the interests of the party. O’Brien – personification of idea of power, convinces hero: ‹‹The fact that the party believes truth is the truth. Reality can only be seen thought eyes of the party››[8, p. 46].
The government believes in nobility of their mission – to bring happiness to all by violence. A person who opposes the government should be crushed – physically, mentally. Critic M. Arapov, exploring anti-utopian novel, says that ‹‹history locomotive arrived at the final stop... And the question how to settle the crowd, what to do with unnecessary couple›› [1, p. 48]. One of essential actions – dissolve man in society, which has ambitious goals. In George Orwell’s this endless war with rivals: ‹‹When public hatred of Eurasia brought to consequence that crowd was ready to break into pieces 2000 Eurasian war criminals... – at this moment was announced that Oceania is not in war with Eurasia. Oceania in war with Ostasia and Eurasia – Ally›› [8, p. 137]. On basis of social history with fantastic adventures authors make socio-philosophical generalizations. About man and his problems writers talk in global philosophical sense. Place of dystopia is not limited to the borders of Berlin (Ostasia, farm, incubators), it covers all earthly world. The energy of masses must necessarily be directed to the controlled channel. This goal is achieved with daily two minutes of hatred, in which everyone must be involved. Their topics – crimes against the Party, sabotage, treason, identification of internal and external enemies of party. In the novel ‹‹Brave New World›› by A. Huxley healing tool is drug that causes orgies of sensuality. That final scene of the novel ends: ‹‹Powerfully drawn scenes of horror, trained to herd, pushing thirst for unity... the audience spontaneously infected with savage fury movements and began to beat each other›› [4, p. 124]. Anti-utopian state indefinitely involves members in structures that do not allow society to break into molecules: young antisex League, Children's detectives organization whose members betray their parents. It is likely that in such organizations operates logic of absurd than necessity.
Cultivating aggression towards strangers, the government promotes suppression of individual. Savage from ‹‹Brave new world›› by A. Huxley, Rudy Shtor from ‹‹Solar engine›› by Vynnychenko and other enemies of anti-utopian society, must not only be destroyed, but the very process of torture is lesson of social behavior. Rudy Shtor tormented for his invention – solar engine, which causes moral disorientation, loss of social and spiritual perspectives, degradation of individual.
Cult of living person has always been considered as form of mass consciousness perceived as sacred entire totalitarian system and the same power. Dystopian showed actual process of dissolution of individual in society. Losing liberty, one perceives it as good. Paradox ‹‹escape from freedom›› dystopia explores as phenomenon of ‹‹system consciousness›› that subordinates itself to mindlessly collective forms of life. Escape from ‹‹I›› in George Orwell's novel ‹‹1984›› is palpable in squalid language used by antiutopists. ‹‹This official language, developed at the request of ideological needs of Engsoc. The purpose of this speech – to eradicate the old heretical thinking, as it depends from expressment of thought›› [6, p. 50]. As a consequence, the word ‹‹free›› in usual sense was not used because freedom does not exist. Thus, restrictions of freedom of individual to the complete abandonment of it – tragedy of portrayed society. The XXth century dystopia embodied not only its social and philosophical aspects but also psychological. Since Ye. Zamyatin genre is increasingly becoming full-fledged novel in which hero's conflict with world differs by versatility. H. Morson says about dystopia that it is ‹‹novel about birth of novel, literature about new discovery of literature›› [7, p. 242].
Psychological reasons for conflict of individual and society can be different: love, hidden from other people's point of view, chance. But always start of discomfort is indicated by dissatisfaction with oneself. Then there is possibility of alienation from oneself as a human of crowd. George Orwell’s psychologism – naturalistic, which is quite adequate depicted in the novel ‹‹1984›› world of internal and external disturbances. The hero of novel, Winston Smith, whose conscience awakened to new, to search for causes of what is happening, to the denial of duality, psychologically closely related to his world. Special forms of psychologism are used when writer turns hero in the past, thus reviving its psychological memory.
Civilization, which deprived person liberty to live, think, feel, brought new socio-biological identity with ritual behavior, poor aesthetic needs. It does not matter whether the person belongs to the top (alpha-plus, members of internal or external party) or to the bottom (gamma-plus), it is still their psychology roboted. As a distorting mirror reflected dystopian world: violence, betrayal. It is no accident that climactic scenes of researched novels are identical in nature. Longest struggled with social madness Winston Smith. But through unacceptable suffering, betrays Julia, just as she did. The system stripped of their souls all manifestations of protest, they are passive, accept the system. It’s power over person is shown in a scene of stormy love for Big Brother, which is undergoing Smith, recently fought against the system. Psychological picture of experienced by V. Vynnychenko and George Orwell's heroes emotions is different. In the ‹‹Solar engine›› characters long for those social life, which was invented before machines.
Combating of Winston Smith, the hero of George Orwell, is not associated only with love, it is struggle against himself as part of system, for rebirth of man. In contrast Vynnychenko’s heroes want to return to lost paradise. In ‹‹1984›› love is not shown schematically, evolution from animal desire to genuine feeling, warmed by spirituality, deepens the characters, gives them personality. The idea accepted by man ‹‹without serious spiritual work›› [10, p. 211], says A. Zverev, does not guarantee moral justice. Dystopia embodied this conflict differences between idea and morality in the forms of big social experiments of the XXth century. In the dystopian genre is fixed historical paradox: formation of ‹‹ideal›› social order was made possible by the fact that under ideological press ‹‹were put›› humans. Modern psychological science says: ‹‹Order in society can be only from inside, starting from order in your own soul. Only this, designed from inside to outside order can be durable and alive››.
Galyna Sabat in work ‹‹In the maze of utopia and dystopia›› indicates that dystopian hero is ‹‹...controversial and complicated, with it occur unexpected metamorphosis›› [9, p. 94]. As in utopia, in dystopia is hero who leads the others.
Ordinary heroes of dystopia novels are devoid of peace, stability – they hesitate, doubt. They are characterized by emotional concerns, turbulent inner emotions, flaws. High moral purity and physical perfection is extrinsic to them. Thus, for example, Winston Smith (‹‹1984››) is an average, unidealized man. However, he stands out from other’s by spiritual world, ability to think analytically, to act boldly. The hero of Aldous Huxley’s novel ‹‹Brave New World›› Savage is far from ideal. However, the fact that he came from another world makes richer his inner world. Searching for meaning of existence, he is in conflict with the world. The hero of novel ‹‹1984›› Winston Smith delves into his inner world, constantly analyzing his experiences.
Characteristic of dystopia is ability of heroes some time be off totalitarian environment. Often the characters are able to stay away from their familiar world of existence. Winston and Julia are able to insulate themselves from ‹‹all-seeing eye›› and spend time together. Savage initially lives in different, better environment, and once in London is experiencing internal distress. He was born outside world state, has mother (not conceived in a test tube). John always wanted to get into different world, because in his world, he was always ignored. Once in this world he can not come to terms with the surrounding reality. Savage can not live in a ‹‹wonderful new world›› and he considers the best protest his own suicide. John believes that it is better to die than become morally degraded creature.
The authors of dystopia developed characteristic for these novels topic of violence against person. Heroes of analyzed works brought to extreme limits of despair and horror. Motives of exclusion, destruction, and lack of family ties are central in human psychological model.
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