Государственно-частное партнерство в логистических комплексах в Узбекистане
Авулчаева Феруза Журакузиевна,
ассистент кафедры менеджмента,
Тургунов Жасур Алимардон угли,
Ферганский политехнический институт, Узбекистан.
Public-private partnerships in the logistics complex in Uzbekistan
Avulchaeva Feruza Zhurakuzievna,
assistant of the department "Management" Fergana Polytechnic Institute,
Turgunov Jasur Alimardon ugli,
3nd year student, Ferghana State University, Uzbekistan.
The article deals with the problem of public-private partnerships in the logistics system of the Republic of Uzbekistan.
Keywords: logistics, logistics facility, road complex of the Republic of Uzbekistan.
In modern science, state-private partnership is the institutional and organizational association that occurs between the public and private businesses to implement social projects. The system of partnership between the public and private sectors is one of the main components of the mixed economic theory. In practice, this system embodies a certain set of attitudes and institutional environment. The state, in turn, taking responsibility for the formation of the institutional environment is considered as a subject that develops procedures and rules of relationships. Among well-known forms of state-private partnerships in Uzbekistan corporate enterprises are widespread, they have a legal form as a joint stock company, limited liability company and double liability company.
It should be noted that international experience of using concessions indicates that such agreements are widespread, mainly in the infrastructural sectors, including rail and road sector, in the municipal sector, power, and pipeline transport. Skye Bridge project is considered the first British projects of infrastructure with involvement of PFI (Private Finance Initiative - PFI) according to the agreement signed in 1991 by the Department of Development of the Ministry of Scotland, the UK. Another project in Hungary is M5 highway. The project provides toll-based operation of the international trade corridor extending from Budapest to the southern border of Hungary, linking Western Europe to the Balkans and Black Sea areas. Another feature of this project is that the M5 highway is considered to be a special part of the project, constituting the North-South highway Trans- Europe supported by the UN Economic Commission for Europe, and is part of the 4th transport corridor Pan-Europe(Berlin - Prague - Bratislava - Budapest - Thessaloniki - Istanbul). International tender was declared in 1992 for financing, construction and operation of the highway and in February of the same year the Franco-Austrian-Hungarian consortium, managed by the company Bouygues and Bau Holdings won the tender. Funding for the first phase of the concession was assigned to the company Alfold Koncesszios Autopalaya (AKA), which are the major shareholders of Bouygues and Bau Holdings. The terms of the concession defined prepayment, the composition of tariffs and order of tariff increase. Given the lack of experience with this form of partnership property in Uzbekistan, the article will discuss the perspectives of concessional agreements in the sectors included in the road transport sector of the Republic, in which public ownership is a priority.
At first glance it seems that the priority of social approval of state interests in the activity of the complex and continuous excellence for private business interest income deny the intersection of the interests of these two subjects of property. Indeed, the possibility of road transport sector, as a producer of social good, to bring sales revenue - quite a controversial topic. Despite this, we will try to highlight a few areas that allow a concession agreement for the participation of the private sector in the activities of the complex.
Firstly, in the process of construction, repair and maintenance of roads can actively engage the private sector. As international experience shows, it is possible to exploit the individual objects of road infrastructure on a fee basis, and this, in turn, will satisfy the need for a material interest of private business. In this regard, it is necessary to develop national standards for the construction of toll roads or reconstruction of public roads taking into consideration the views of international experts. Secondly, industrial enterprises producing construction materials of the Roads of the Republic, are still state-owned. Since the question of their corporatization is not worth it in the agenda, they can also be for a fixed term to hand over to the concession. At the same time to meet the material interest of the private sector it is required to develop a mechanism to negotiate prices for products produced by these industrial enterprises.
Third, it is possible to use the practice of giving the objects of roadside infrastructure and service on a fixed term on the basis of the concession contract. Of course, due to lack of funds in the complex immediate privatization of such objects seems appropriate, however, it should be noted that the fuller utilization of object of delivery service on some structures of road sector can lead to more efficient use of state property. In this article, recommendations are developed on the operation of toll roads that did not exist in the history of the road sector in Uzbekistan. This is part of a 886 kilometers to 910 kilometers of the international highway M-39 "Almaty-Bishkek-Tashkent-Termez" passing now through the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan. As history of road of Uzbekistan shows, construction of M-39 was launched in 60-70s years of the 20th century. It passes over 658 km through the capital of Uzbekistan, Tashkent city Syrdarya, Jizzakh, Samarkand, Shakhrisabz, Guzar, Dekhkanabad, Sherabad, Angor, connects the capital of the Republic of Kazakhstan Almaty with the Uzbek town of Termez. Part of this highway passing through the territory of Uzbekistan, crossing the 24 km of the territory of Kazakhstan, re-enters the territory of the country. According to the authors, these 24 kilometers of the highway can be reconstructed on the basis of international requirements and resume movement by transferring the management of the toll road newly created International Corporation.
Calculations show that the reconstruction of this part of the highway M-39 to international toll roads and commissioning required investment funds in the amount of 69960.90 million sums. In addition, repair and maintenance costs of the International Corporation annually amount to about 257.75 million sums.
If we consider that the average traffic volume at the beginning of line, i.e. passing through Tashkent and Syrdarya region of 26872 vehicles per day, and that on average 65% of the car re-registered in the institution road office Sardob, starting from the border of Kazakhstan, the possible number of passing through the toll road vehicles (potential intensity) will be 17467 vehicles per day). At the same time, all the roads reaching the highway and leaving it have to be closed, as well as the problem of construction of new, parallel lines, roads for local traffic should be solved. With the parts agreeing on the need for these roads, based on expert judgment, it is necessary to identify the sources of construction financing. Of course, these calculations and the resulting observational data make it possible to determine the cost of launching the international toll road. Thus, according to preliminary estimates the payback period of the international investment project, which makes it possible to return to the continuous operation of the highway M-39 from Tashkent to Termez, is 5.47 years. For comparison, the payback period in the above-named British project Skye Bridge according to preliminary calculations was 20 years old. Based on the in-service bridge revenues, the payback period had to be reduced to 17 years. Ultimately, investors regained their investment for 4 years earlier than planned, i.e., for 13 years. The terms of the concession project of the Hungarian M5 highway concessionaire provides delivery of state highways in 35 years in good working condition. In the above calculations the costs associated with the organization of an international corporation are not taken into consideration. Recognizing that the governments of both countries are free to decide the placement of the package of shares, we consider it necessary to underline the feasibility of providing supplies the absolute number of these shares to private business. Of course, in the course of the project the parties may use the opportunity to attract public funds to finance the project through the return of these funds by selling these shares after the private sector, or immediately raise equity capital by selling shares. But in both cases, the relationship will work, involving public and private sectors. When activated, this part of the toll motorway it is advisable to sign an international agreement between the two countries, as well as recognition by the two states the status of corporation as a participant of legal relations that determine the full responsibility on the territory of the highway. Summarizing, we can say the following. Implementation of the project, proposed in this paper, which is the first concession project, the organization of which is possible in Uzbekistan, is a more efficient use of transit potential of road transport sector of our country. According to the authors, there are several other projects to increase the attractiveness of the road transport industry for private capital, so the development of them consider an urgent task at the present stage of development of infrastructure in Uzbekistan.
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Поступила в редакцию 30.04.2015 г.