Мировоззрение: онтологический и методологический подходы
Харьковский Руслан Геннадиевич,
кандидат исторических наук, доцент, докторант кафедры философии культуры и культурологии Луганского университета им. Владимира Даля.
Научный руководитель – доктор философских наук, профессор, зав. кафедрой философии культуры и культурологии, декан гуманитарного факультета Луганского университета им. Владимира Даля
Лугуценко Татьяна Валентиновна.
Worldview: ontological and methodological approaches
Kharkovskiy Ruslan Gennadievich,
сandidate of Sciences in History, Associate Professor, Applicant at the Department of Philosophy and Cultural studies of Vladimir Dal Lugansk University.
Modern worldview situation is quite often characterized by the concepts of «mental block», «worldview timelessness», is called the era of intensive search for «a new paradigm». The concept of «worldview» is actualized by the life itself, «diagnosis of our time» (K. Mannheim), widely used in scientific texts, however, is still not sufficiently researched by the theoretical thought.
In the modern «supercomplex» world of fundamental transformation of all life spheres, mankind is forced to solve problems of their own survival and self-preservation. In conditions when morality and spirituality of a person are destroying, traditional forms of social communication are transforming, system relations of social subjects become much more complicated, the human factor gains particular importance, and the problem of the anthropological dimension of existence, the search of the ontological origins and worldview foundations clearly comes up.
Indeed, in the realities of the present, complex and in its own way unique period of rapid acceleration of the tempus and rhythms of life, our contemporary involuntarily gets into life situations that occur at the intersections of historical eras and even millennia, into «significant» life events, often slipping from thoughtful understanding. The reality of global communication and high information technologies of industrial civilization considerably expands the objective possibilities of the personal fulfilment, but at the same time narrows orienting points of his actual prospects. Realia of «Futureshock» (A.Toffler), of the information stress of anthropogenic culture significantly transform worldview and view of life of the human «society of the spectacle» (G.Debord), reinforcing his state anxiety and tension. In the modern conditions, established traditions, cultural-historical mechanisms of adaptation to the changing world collapse, established values, meanings and priorities of the person «fall to pieces». Functioning forms of worldview are unable to retain the essential purpose of a person’s worldview -harmonization of the worlds of his existence.
With all this in deep grounds of the ontological dimension a wide range of vitally significant philosophical questions is born: is there still the possibility of sustainable development and self-preservation of the humanity, or this feature of existence considerably becoming complicated and deformed in its conditions? What is «human» in a human being? What forms humanity as a modus of existence is being preserved in and transmitted in cultural history, transformed in the contexts of modernity? In what ways the correlation of the feature with processes of self-knowledge, self-education and education of human is realized? What is the existential dimension of the classical spiritual legacy, fundamental scientific knowledge; what is its place in education and integral structure of the spiritual life of society, in reorientation of axiological foundations of contemporary culture? All these and many others related questions and problems arise in the extension of worldview, identifying the complicated by reality of the existence of human images and contours of the world. So, in the modern world existential paradox of worldview forms and sufficiently acutely appears, reproducing its (worldview) crisis, condition, and objective, life-affirming search of «new worldview paradigm», that requires appropriate methodological reflections.
In modern conditions features of worldview crisis are clearly detected and an objective basis of its possible overcoming is seen. In its essential basis, the crisis of worldview, according to the opinion of the dissertation's author, is expressed by the existential gap of «spiritual» and «practical» human activity. This can be proven firstly and most clearly by the fact, that the wealth of spiritual experience, accumulated and stored in culture, is almost unclaimed in sphere of everyday life. They are not actualized with real structures and forms of human activity, are not objectified, are not consumed and reproduced enough in education sphere. The specific criterion of the deep crisis of worldview, therefore, is the loss by the worldview of rod mechanism «wrapping» the moral norms of the society in moral action. As a result, the actual human activity (under cumulation of rich potential of humanity, which was accumulated by experience of culture) existential reproduces the quality of «one-dimensional» man (H.Marcuse), «individualized society» (Z.Bauman), «risk society» (U.Beck), the realities of «fragmented» world and the "patchwork» of culture (A.Mol).The apparent paradox of existence becomes the fact that a person entered his historic and «psychological topology Way» (M.Mamardashvili) in such conditions of daily life, does not only overcome, but did not fix and does not try to realize this «one-dimensionality». It is obvious, that there is a crisis of self-discovery, identification, crisis of worldview and education of a person. Another facet of manifested in the conditions of worldview crisis and its philosophical relevance of the research is the obvious fact that today none of the historical types of worldview fully meets the challenges and demands of modernity. The concept of «worldview», as it is often stated in the literature, still remains one of the most theoretically undeveloped methodological constructs of consciousness. However, this concept is one of the leading philosophical categories and has its own history in the spiritual culture of society.
The appearance of the concept of «worldview» and his first philosophical understanding is connected with the names of such representatives of classical German philosophy, as I.Kant, F.Schleiermacher, G.Hegel. And if the first philosophical doctrine of worldview and its types was created by V.Dilthey, but this concept became the key category, as it is known, in Marxism, as the doctrine of «real humanism» (I.T.Frolov). In Marxist philosophy, the concept of worldview receives a special methodological load of conceptual expression of the practical relations of a person to the world, the synthesis of the «spiritual» and «practical»( V.Isaev) human activity, the theoretical platform of the revolutionary teachings of the working class. Later in the Marxist-Leninist teaching this concept takes on a new idea – the connection of science and ideology in the integrity of theoretical worldview. And the general understanding formula of worldview appears as a system of generalized view of a person on the world in general and his own place in the world, receiving its refinements and new understanding.
It is important to note, that this interpretation of the worldview as an ideology has become a characteristic feature of Western-European mentality and the fact that this interpretation has created an appropriate reaction to the concept of «worldview», largely determined its fate. As the result of an artificial narrowing of the values of this concept to the status of the totalitarian ideology, trends, widely represented in philosophy, especially in the teaching of positivism and postmodernism, as well as research in the fields of philosophy, political science, historical thought (K.Linden, K.Mannheim, S.Lipset, Z.Freud, K.Fridrih, F.Fukuyama, G.Shwab, etc.), the significant limitation of the reflexive potential of this concept takes place. However, the historical dynamics and the logic of development of philosophical thought had its own influence on the evolution of meanings of the concept of «worldview». General semantic transformation of this concept has its theoretical origins and foundations, rooted, firstly, in the development of Western philosophy. Their fixation and determination represent not only interest in terms of learning the «language games» (L.Wittgenstein) on the theme of «worldview», but first of all, for the reconstruction of the true meaning of the concept of worldview, which is authentic to their own nature.
Studies show that a kind of theoretical platform, entailing subsequent «ideologization» and «scientization» of the ideology concept, can be considered domination in modern European philosophy from R.Decartes to G.V.F.Gegel of «rationalistic interpretations of human beings» (P.P.Gaidenko), as well as the impact on the general idea of social consciousness methodological priorities of philosophical pantheism and transcendentalism of G.V.F.Gegel. In our opinion, in the philosophy of G.Gegel «the impassable face between the transcendent and the immanent, between creator and creation is removed, there is a surprising situation: a man, on the one hand, excessively rises, speaking as a real man-God, almighty beings, which takes possession of nature and the world, but, on the other hand, it is imaginary, and the rise turns into a complete humiliation of a person as an individual being, as the end of existence. Such a philosophical setting later becomes a convenient scheme of justification of «total», «inclusive» and «the only true» facing people and their political movements, «rooting in the consciousness of each individual» ideology adopts the function of a holistic worldview (J. Schwab) .
The interpretation of the concept of «worldview» dips in the context of anthropological philosophy, philosophy of life, existential philosophy, phenomenology, finds its importance in the border with the philosophy areas of knowledge (psychology, pedagogy, ecology, political science, and others.). The concept of «world» begins to function well in a variety of subject areas, getting an opportunity in their contexts reflexively to update, clarify, deepen and expand their meanings.
Thus, the relevance of philosophical and methodological analysis of the concept of «worldview» can be justified with a number of factors, conditions and circumstances. Firstly, the need to update the status of the philosophical concept of «worldview», which is detected by the presence of this concept in the philosophical texts, and is characterized by the lack of implementation of its methodological reflection.
Secondly, the task of philosophical reflection and generalization of the concept of «worldview» is used and fixed in its various meanings and values in different areas of knowledge.
Thirdly, the need for the analytical study of the diversity existing in the history of the mental culture of the so-called «myths of absence of the worldview»» ( V. Isaev).
Fourthly, the requirements of the objective conditions of modernity, which impulse to the study of the phenomenon of ideology, especially because the keen interest in reflexive analysis of the concept of worldview and philosophical foundations of human life with special acuteness is found in the crucial periods of history, crisis era, when there is a change of world views, styles and paradigms of thinking, the value orientation of a person when the new grounds of life-affirmation and attitudes toward the world of mankind in the complex realities of transforming culture are found. During such periods of history the main features of worldview are most clearly manifested, agreeing with each other, as the most important form of spiritual and practical experience of the person and humanity – the «life meaning» content, the aspiration to the synthesis of knowledge, the organization of worldview, the wide interpretative potential, symbolism, practical and sound polyphony views and others.
Fifthly, the state-of-the epistemology, the need to rethink many of its well-established paradigms, primarily in the sphere of humanitarian knowledge, the reevaluation of values of classical examples of rational knowledge, the current models of the methodology of scientific research. The real character and prospects of self-development of science for its part more support methodological limitations exclusivity of internalist models of self-knowledge and open expanse of its «human measuring» ( V. Isaev) worldview explication.
Thus, in worldview research a real problem of critical rethinking of its concepts arises, overcoming the shortcomings of current methodological approaches and the development of a renewed philosophical-methodological reflection, capable of expressing deep essence of the phenomenon of worldview, its ontological nature, content integrity, reveal a rich functional potential of the concept of «worldview».
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Поступила в редакцию 21.04.2015 г.