Военно-административные посты и звания в хивинском ханстве во время правление династии конгратов (вторая половина ХIХ – начало ХХ века)
Ургенчский государственный университет.
The viewpoints of Abu-Raykhon Beruniy on the foundation of early state systems in Khorezm
Sadullayev Doniyorbek Xursandbekovich,
Kuryazov Sanjarbek Sobirjonovich,
Ismailov Sobirjon Rashidbek ug’li .
UrSU Urganch, Uzbekistan.
It is known that, after gaining its independence a lot of practical and theoretical work has been done on comprehendingand reservation of own history,culture, own spiritual heritage.In this case, the president of the republic Islam Karimov spoke about the history of the uzbek state system and told that it has the same history as the ancient Egypt, China, India, Ancient Greece and Iran:"The keystones of Uzbek state system were founded 2700 years ago in ancient Khorezm area exactly" [1, p. 1997]. The ancient written sources inherited from ancesstors confirms this point. In "Avesto" which was written nearly three thousand years ago, [2, p. 2001]"Manuscripts left by ancient people" by Abu Raykhon Beruniy we can find information about the foundation of Uzbek states in Central Asia, for instance in Khorezm [3, p. 71]. It is difficult to say in what degree this information near to the truth, because the source of information givem by Beruniy was not indicated. But one thing is clear that, Beruniy used widespread folktales and legends about Siyavush,"Avesto" and "Shah name" at that time. We think, basing on those folktales and legends, Beruniy created the conception on early state system by speaking of Syavushian dynasty and their reign in Khorezm.The date of foundation of early states in Central Asia according to the conception is more closer to the truth. Because the view points by Beruniy is believed to be the most nearest to the truth in textbooks of history published in the past few years. For example,according to the first volume of "History of Uzbek People" published by academic A.Askarov in 1992 "The foundation of early class society and ancient state systems were observed in late 2000 B.C. and first quarter of 1000 B.C. in the territory of Central Asia" [4, p. 23]. Accoding to Beruniy, the foundation of early ancient state system in Khorezm prolonged for many years. It's history goes back to XII centuries B.C. [3, p. 71].
In recent years, most scholars confirmed beruniy's viewpoints on the date of establishment of early state systems. For instance,according to the authors of the book "History of Uzbekistan: the prosperity of state and society" ,"The Uzbek state system was established 3-4 thousand years ago" [5, p. 2]. In the book "Ancient civilization in Uzbekistan:fragments from the history of state and law" by the second group of scholars it is written that "The early states known to the humanity were established from 5000 till 2000 in different geografic continents usually along the large rivers" [6, p. 27]. We came to the conclusion on the establishment of Khorezm state system basing on Beruniy's viewpoints,the process happened in two periods.First period, from XII till VIII centuries B.C, second period from VIII till VI centuries B.C., it means the process continued till the conquest of Iranian Ahmanids. It is clear that no matter of being no unique point about the date of establishment of early states, they are all close toBeruniy's view points and confirms them. We can make conclusions and agree with the conclusion by the creators of the unique conception of teaching and studying the history of Uzbekistan, "It has been 3000 years to the foundation of early states in Central Asia, for instance in the territory of Uzbekistan" [7, p. 11].
On this point, Beruniy wrote that according to legends in "Avesto" and "Shah name", Siavush was the founder of the system of shah reign in Khorezm and divined as holy king and became the hero widespread in folk oral literature.Kayhusrav Afrasiyob (Alp Er Tunga,the governor of Turon)'s son and his son in law Siyavush and their ancesstors immigration to Khorezm, the process of uniting to one kingdom began there slowly.It is known that, as we have mentioned above beforethe legendary Siyavushian dynasty came to Khorezm, there inhabited several tribes in sac-massaget tribal union such as apasiys, derbics, dakhs, osolans, khorezmian kinsmen. Each member tribe in the union had own leader (padishah). For instance. Tumaris, Amorg, Saksafar, Amarey, Skunkha. The Khorezmian ruled the Massagets' union inhabiting in Khorezm region [8, p. 82]. Besides, according to Akmal Saidov, there were tribal unions uniting 20 several tribes in Central Asia.Among them the massaget tribal union was the largest and most powerful.The background of Turkish people,for instance Uzbek people goes back to the massagets.Also there can be found some facts about the existance of independent Khorezm state in XV-XII centuries B.C. [9, p. 12]
Famous Uzbek archeologist Y.Gulomov claimed the existance of Khorezm -Massaget state [8, p. 86]. Herodotus, Strabon, Hecataeus Massagets estimated confederation reported. Because it is based on the principles of military-political confederation tribes ittifoqqi. In our opinion, this confederation specific state hindrance Christ. Because of the state-specific attributes Mahluf area, king-of elders, tribal leaders and their own twisted available. Kill an enemy attack recently Guard assembled a large army cials. Elected as one of the leaders of the military forces in the tribal control. For example, came into the Persian king Cyrus II Massagets Saks leaders Amore, Amores, Skunxa To'marislar joining the military chief, Princess at Tumaris who led the fight against the enemy.
With regard to living in the Khorezm oasis Kill, as massagets, Daxing tribes settled, semi-settled life. The majority of the population lived in urban and rural areas of trade, crafts, dehkonchilik oasis in the desert sand of the population living in the semi-nomadic, hunting and animal activist. (Massagets ittifoqqi, in the king's first step toward establishing the first state in the country, according to the SAK-as massagets tribes ittifoqqi residing kingdom of dust. The second step in this direction TACA and Murg'ob River Basin and Turkman Duroson, who lives in the foothills almost, Khoresmian and other Allaah and nationalities of his kingdom components, is to set up an independent and powerful state in the region. It is from them that the time has historically carried out in order to conditions more favorable opportunities.
In fact, the second half of the second millennium BC, and I for the first quarter of the millennium [9, p. 316], initially around the world living in East Turkestan, then, is located on the south-western regions of Central Asia, themselves “Arhya” or almost (“Mr. People”, “noble”) called Indian-Iranian tribes of Allaah and the first division (separation) that occurred [10, p. 174]. Iranian languages belonging to the group of nearly Iran and Central Asia in the south part of the Khorezm oasis. Indian languages belonging to the group soon settled down in the Indian peninsula. Almost a part of the Europeans to move ketgan.Bu tribes, mainly involved in Sunhing irrigation-based agriculture [9, p. 119-120]. Avesta, at qillinishicha Siyovushning son Kayxusrav and his descendants that Allaah and the tribes were able to join in the Khorezm kingdom. Later, in the sixth century XV in Iran Akhamenides Khorezm occupation, in order to strengthen their rule under arias transcribed and Khoresmian Allaah Khorezm oasis, where farming communities in handy. Khorezm oasis moved to the Persian-speaking population speaking a Turkic people with additional intervention, giving a little of their language and culture. So often Khorezm leksikasida Turkic words are the words of one becoming the Persian-Tajik.
So, Khorezm ethnogenesis of the people, especially the two ethnic element - participated in the Turkic and Persian-Tajik elements. However, Biruni tahkidlashicha Turkic tribes of Khorezm is one of the oldest ethnic groups in the Khorezm people of the same ethnic origin. For this reason yesterday that the ancestors of the ancient Turkic tribes in his first siyovushiylarni think of the first conquerors of the land.
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Поступила в редакцию 06.05.2015 г.