Гостиницы на международных торговых маршрутах караванов на берегах Амударьи
Ургенчский государственный университет.
Inns on International Trade Caravan routes on the Amudarya river Banks
Hamrayev Quvonchbek Aminbayevich,
UrSU, Urgench, Uzbekistan.
According to the results of the archeological investigations in Khorezm, the territory combining both right and left banks of the Amudarya river wasn’t turned into ethnic location at the beginning of millennium and in neolith and bronze age. But the life style changed in the middle of the e-millennium BC. Mainly, at that period, the territories were assimilated because of forming enormous channels from the Amudarya river by the local people and in turn, these areas were cultivated into rural areas.
Taking into consideration the importance of the position of the Amudarya river, to carry out trade relations with foreign countries, the centralized Khorezmian state performed the policy of constructing cities, towns and inns on Caravan routes where the trade caravans could stop , which was aimed to carry out foreign trade relations. It known that, the inhabited places with a number of population and inns on caravan routes, which existed from the beginning of V century B.C. till the beginning of XIII century along the both banks of Amudarya river, and gave the opportunity to make trade relations in the southern, northern, south-western and south-eastern directions. There was a pass way crossing the Amudarya river from right side to the left side and there was constant movement of traffic to the Kat city. According to the archeological facts, there were established two inns on caravan routes on the left side of the river till the castle Sadvar and 8 inns on caravan routes established on the right side till the village Shurakhan [1.p. 12].
The inns on caravan routes on the left side of the Amudarya were Sangirkala, Toshakr, Kabakli, Kushkala-2, Uchkersen, Eshak-Rabat, Doya-Khotun, Ketmenchi, Koykala, Ok-Rabat-1, Danisher-kala.
The inns on the caravan routes on the right side of the Amudarya were Ok-rabot, Yigitkala, Qizkala, Kukertli, Sartarosh, Doshkala-2.
Here we are going to introduce you with the information on the structure of the inns on the caravan routes studied and survived by archeologists.
1. Doya Khotun was situated between Eshak-Rabat and Ketmanchi. The construction is right angled.It was surrounded with the walls of mud bricks, its entrance gate is on the northern wall. The stable position of the wall height was survived till the end of the 19th century. Some researches had been carried out by G.A. Pugachenkova, M. Massone, A.M. Pribitkova.The construction of the inns of the caravan routes was marked with the XI-XII centuries..[ 2p. 199, 3p. 231, 4p,.39-41]
2. Ketmenchi, being in square shape and surrounded with the walls of mud bricks.(27x27 meters)
3. Ok-rabot-2 was right angled and surrounded with the walls of mud. Its square was 40x80 meters and situated between the Eastern walls. In 1966-1973 V.A. Laxocits, the researcher of the archeological-ethnographic expedition of Khorezm, had organized several archeological investigations on this ancient places. According to the historical data, this inn on the caravan route was in active use in the XII-XII centuries [ 5.p. 506-507 ].
4. Kukertly was situated between Kukoghiz and Kizilrabot and in front of Dargon. According to famous Uzbek historian Y. Gulamov the trade route from Bukhara to Khorezm went through there. S.Tolstov indicated that the inn was in right angled shape (28x31meters)surrounded by the walls of mud bricks, and the date of its background belonged to the X-XII centuries [ 6 ].
5. Kizilrabot was situated on the top of Kukertly. According to the results of archeological investigations it was in square shape and surrounded with 1.5meters height walls of mud bricks. This archeological construction is supposed to have been built in IX-XII centuries [ 1.p. 24].
6. Sartarosh was another inn on caravan routes, which was built in square shape (32x32 meters) and it was also surrounded with walls of bricks [7.p. 115-117 ].
7. Eshak Rabot was first studied by Khorezmian expedition in 1974.It shape was square (48-48 meters), surrounded with the walls of mud bricks. Its historical background belonged to the IX-XII centuries [5.p. 112-114].
According to the notes of Arabian geographers there were three routes connecting Khorezmian state with the south.
1. Left side trade route connected Jurjon Khuroson.
2. The main Bukhara-Farob-Kat trade route.
3. The trade route from right to left side banks of the Amudarya river.
Most trade relations were carried out on the left bank of the river between Bukhara and Khiva. The castles established on the bank of the Amudarya in the ancient, previous and middle ages functioned as boundary. The inns on the caravan routes served as a relaxing place for a certain term. The merchants made their preparations for next trip during a certain period. For instance, they purchased food, stuffs and large livestock for the possible situations. Likewise, the infrastructures were organized and served in the inns on the caravan routes. The trade tax was taken from population who lived in the towns on borderlines of countries. In the middle ages, the amount of the tax was taken as 1/40 share on the basis of the Islamic religion laws and it was performed by 20 kot(tax) collector. In turn the tax collector noted the taxes by identifying the quantity and the type of the product with his assistants. As it is noted in the historical sources, the merchants donated gifts to the officials both voluntarily and compulsorily, except taxes. There was a peculiar class-money changers functioned to exchange money, who were important at the trade relation sat the inns on the caravan routes and in boundary towns. In the middle ages, it was noted that the cheque was in treatment in trading works through The Great Silk route.
It is likely that the healers done medical service to the people on the trade routes. It is necessary to point out that there were medical service centers. The people underwent a cure from the healers who could eliminate the syndrome of illness appeared because of the climate change, of the villages and towns and medical supplies were stored at the large towns and inns on the caravan routes. Furthermore, there may be existed the persons who assimilated the treatment instructions.
The dispensaries were also built at the trade stops. No doubt, the infrastructures, which served to the merchants and international trade route, medical service, supplying their security was the obligation of the state.
Big towns were the economical attribute of the society as foreign transporting internal and external trade centers, besides being the center of handicraft. Although the population of the towns differed from each other with the variety of ethnic composition, the diversity of the population, it directed them towards an only intention, by providing their corporation.
The inns on the caravan routes and towns were the residences of merchants to stay for a while, coming from far destinations and sell their goods. Such kind of trade would influence to the development of the economy of the country.
In the middle ages, Gurganch, Vazir, Khiva, Bukhara, Poykand, Dabusya and Karshi were the trade and transportation centers. As it was noted in the western sources the observation rooms were organized at each stopping places by the centralized state and their function was to protect the merchants and their goods.
Indeed, the person concerned with the trade both internal and external trade relations was called as “tamkar”. At that time the people who dealt with trade were divided into two groups, internal and external dealers of trade. The towns situated on the right side of the Amudarya such as Kukertly, Shurakhan, Nargizkala; on the left side-Dargon, Sadvar, Khazorasp. Khazorasp was the center of trade-dealers’ worshipping. We can come to the following conclusion, basing on the above –mentioned historical data. As it is known from the historical data, the inhabitants of this place had done rural works on the locations of the river bands of the Amudarya till the middle of the V-I millennium BC. The riverbeds of the Amudarya often changed its stream, and as a result the channels were dug by local people and villages, towns for defense and inns on the caravan routes for carrying out foreign trade works were established, in turn those events made the new Amudarya branch of the Great Silk Route.
At the end of the V century BC the inns on caravan routes were built considerably for merchants and infrastructural priority to develop internal and external commerce in independent Khorezm on the basin of the Amudarya river.
The priority of the inns on the caravan routes on the left bank over the right bank of the Amudarya river testifies that the external trade route was adequately active. If the activity of the inns on the caravan routes of the foreign trade route was supplied by the centralized state and tours such as Tuprok kala , Dargon, Sadvar, Jigarband and Kanaras were built on the defensive aim and they established a defensive system along the bank of the river.
The inns on caravan routes were the opportunity for native inhabitants of the region to purchase goods and exchange the products. The way “Sipaya” served as a foreign caravan route connecting Bukhara and Khorezm. At the same time, it served for the military affairs of the Russian Army led by Kaufman to Khiva and Amir Temur’s raid to Khorezm also.
Nowadays, that antique towns and inns on the caravan routes play important role in accomplishing the target projects to reconstruct the Great Silk Route and develop its branches at the current globalization period.
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Поступила в редакцию 25.05.2015 г.