Опредение адаптационного потенциала личности в посттравматическом процессе
Determination of the adaptation potential level of personality in the process of post-traumatic
Завацкий Вадим Юрьевич,
аспирант кафедры психологии Восточноукраинского национального университета им. Владимира Даля, г. Северодонецк.
An urgency of solving the problem of social reintegration of the individuality is determined due to many obstacles in the process of post-traumatic that exist in the case of a fundamental change in a life situation, particularly such people who returned from prison who have just lost their addiction to psychotropic substances have these situations, as well as the military workers who retired to the reserve or to the resignation or returned after participating in armed conflicts. If the effect of such changes exceeds the existing adaptive capacity of the individuality and the process of post-traumatic is blocked or is unsuccessful, there is a need for rehabilitation. The searching for the products that can enhance the ability of the individuality to adapt to the new circumstances is a relevant way of post-traumatic of the people, as it can significantly prevent and correct the negative trends that accompany the process of post-traumatic [1; 2; 4].
It can be noted that the post-traumatic problem of the peopleis not well developed in the theoretical and methodological aspects as well as in the practical aspects of an implementing. The investigations in that issue were almost exclusively associated with the medical and psychological aspects - mainly with the battle-tried individuals in posttraumatic rehabilitation (N.V. Dmitrieva, M.V. Drumova, A.A. Lazebna, L.F. Shestopalova, etc.), or with the medical and social rehabilitation of people with alcohol or drug dependence (V.Y. Zavialov, I.M. Pyatnyts'ka, I.I. Shurygina, etc.), or with the social aspects of the maladjusted people who returned from prison rehabilitation (T.R. Tatydinova, V. Trubnikov, etc. ). In addition, the processes of adaptation and rehabilitation of people were considered in the structure of teachers’ personality’s professionalization (L.P. Butuzova, G.G. Gorelova, K.U. Chymbelenhe, etc.), and of the professional police officers’ adaptation (D.O. Kobzin, V. Konoplyev, A. Moskalenko, V. Sobolev). The researchers started to investigate the problem of predicting psychological effects of the local military conflicts recently (A.G. Maklakov, V. Stasiuk, S. Kharchenko, S.V. Chermyanin, E.B. Pasha, etc. ), of a socially psychological reintegration of disabled combatants ( P. Ivanov, A.G. Caraiani, N.V. Tarabryna), psychologocally pedagogical conditions of adaptation of the imprisoned people (S.V. Baburin, M.G. Shuruhnov, A. Yakovlev), and especially of the social and psychological rehabilitation of alcoholics or drug addicts who are in remission (B.S. Bratus, E.N. Gryaznov, F.S. Mzhelskyy, I.A. Novikov, O. P. Timofeev). The process of rehabilitation is generally understood as the activities associated with either radical reorganization of a body systems functioning as a whole in extraordinary circumstances, or with an individual in connection with the new life circumstances that differ from the conditions of life and work [1, 2; 3]. So, due to this approach a factor of the social rehabilitation as an adaptive potential of the individual is completely ignored by the scientists, which absence can make the measures aimed at optimizing physiological conditions or socially psychological component ineffective . It is also necessary to note the lack of clear criteria with the help of which it would be possible to assess the level of social and psychological strain of an maladjusted individual and his environment and therefore, to develop an effective system of post-traumatic. That is why, the scientific problem of psychological research on post-traumatic of personality is relevant both from the social and from the scientific point of view.
The purpose of the article is to determine the levels of adaptive capacity of people in the process of post-traumatic.
According to the hypothesis of the study the necessity in the process of post-traumatic have those who have reduced indicies of the adaptive capacity. That is why it is necessary to examine which of these parameters determine different levels of adaptive capacity investigated with the aim of further enrolling this information in the development of the post-traumatic of the people with varying degrees of social adaptation. Thas was the subject of our special investigation. The selection of an appointed investigated contingent is conditioned due to the negative dynamics of their social adaptation.
Taking into account the self-esteem exponents, locus of control, personality traits, level of aggression, frustration level of tension and emotional stability, efficiency indicator of adaptation, direction and type of reaction in a situation of frustration, social adaptation rate (CGR), indicators of motivational sphere of values functioning as well as social support parameters a differentiation of the adaptive potential levels was held. That allowed to distinguish high, medium, low and very low adaptive capacity.
Individuals with the high adaptive capacity (23.8 %) have an adequate self-esteem with the tendency of overestimation and a significant positive relationship between the real I and the perfect I (r = 0,79; p ≤ 0,05). Stable and flexible enough at the same time the self-esteem of these subjects which if it is necessary can be changed under the influence of new information, gained experience, evaluations of other people is optimal both for a personal growth and for a productive activities. An internal locus of control prevails among the examined subjects (p ≤ 0,05). The indicators of aggression appeared to be low - within 0,64 ± 0,7 points. High adaptation efficiency indicator (0,4 ± 0,75 points) showes a low frustration tension and high emotional stability (p <0,01). Individuals with high adaptive capacity are distinguished with the lack of clear accentuation of character and psychopathy (φ = 2,08; p ≤ 0,01). In a situation of frustration mostly intropunitive reactions (I > M> E) of a must - persistent type are present (NP> OD> ED) (p ≤ 0,05). Individuals with this level of adaptive capacity have a high rate of social adaptation CGR - 55 ± 4,5% (φ = 1,61; p ≤ 0,05). As for meaningful and dynamic aspects of motivation, the ratio of values in different spheres of life and accessibility for their achievements correspond to the normative parameters (33,0 ± 0,4) and points out to certain satisfaction with the life situation and preference of an achievement motivation (p ≤ 0,01). Individuals with the high adaptive capacity have a high level of social integration and a developed social support system , a high emotional and instrumental support are defined (φ = 1,56; p ≤ 0,05).
Patients ( 33.9 %) with a mid-level adaptive capacity have an inadequate self-esteem and the correlation coefficient (r = 0,41; p ≤ 0,05) affirms little relationship between people’s perceptions of their ideal and their real quality. The locus of control is mainly external (p ≤ 0,05). These people are distinguished with mild (15 ± 2,2 points) character accentuation (excitability, cycletility, jam ) (φ = 1,61; p ≤ 0,05). The level of aggression is increased (1,23 ± 0,4 points). In a situation of frustration the orientation reactions presented as extrapunitive and intropunitive reactions (E ≥ I > M) mainly in the way of fixation the obstacles (OD> NP> ED) (p ≤ 0,01). The social adaptation coefficient is reduced on a level of 45 ± 3,5% ( at a rate of ≥ 60%). An average rate adaptation performance indicator (1,05 ± 0,5 points) shows a high tension and frustration is higher than an average emotional stability (p <0,01). Data functioning motivational value sphere showed the average (42,4 ± 1,7) disintegration between the value and the accessibility in different spheres of life, including: the desire to prevail over the odds for their implementation. The indicators of achievement motivation are low (6 ± 2 points) (p ≤ 0,05). Social support was limited with a low emotional support (φ = 1,56; p ≤ 0,05).
People (29.5 %) with the low adaptive capacity have an inadequate and unstable self-image that changes under the influence of the least impacts and vague, undifferentiated image of your ideal I and your real I (r = 0,36; p ≤ 0,05). The locus of control is mainly external (p ≤ 0,01). The investigated people with the low adaptive capacity are distinguished with the marked accentuational nature (21 ± 3 points) and the presence of psychopathy (φ = 1,61; p ≤ 0,05). The level of aggression is higher than the average (1,85 ± 0,8 points) and points out to a lack of restraint in behavior, a low control of aggressive tendencies. In the situation of frustration extrapunitive reactions ( E> M> I) with fixation on the obstacles and self-defence are dominated (OD> ED> NP) (p ≤ 0,05). The investigated people have almost a half reduced rate of social adaptation CGR - at 32 ± 4,6% (φ = 2,16; p ≤ 0,01). Those people have a tensity of frustration which is higher than the average and low emotional stability, affecting the low indicator of the adaptation (2,01 ± 0,47 points ) (p <0,01). These semantic aspects of motivation indicate frustration and existence of difficulties in achieving the value objects. A significantly heightened (56,2 ± 1,2) factor in the disintegration of motivational sphere of values is observed (p ≤ 0,05). Those dynamic aspects of motivation show a privilege of the avoiding motivation to the achieving motivation (p ≤ 0,01). The interpersonal relationships are broken, the social supporting system is limited. A deficit of close trusting relationships is available as well as the low level of the emotional support and social integration (φ = 1,62; p ≤ 0,05).
Thus, the data confirm a definite correlation between the level of adaptive capacity and the degree of social adaptation of the patients : the majority of the socially adapted subjects have the high adaptive capacity, that do not require a special corrective work ; the largest number of subjects with partial social adjustment have a moddle level of adaptive capacity, which increasing to a higher level give an opportunuty to their successful resettlement; the majority of subjects with the total and destructive degrees of social exclusion have a low and a very low levels of adaptive capacity.
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Поступила в редакцию 26.01.2016 г.