Ïðîáëåìà äîâåðèÿ è íåâèäèìîñòè â ïîýçèè Âèêòîðà Ãþãî
Àëèåâà Àéãþíü Èëüõàì êûçû,
äèññåðòàíò Ãÿíäæèíñêîãî ðåãèîíàëüíîãî íàó÷íîãî öåíòðà ÍÀÍ Àçåðáàéäæàíà.
Problem of belief and invisibleness in Victor Hugo’s poetry
Alieva Aygun Ilham kizi,
candidate for a degree of Ganja Regional Scientific Center of ANAS Azerbaijan, Ganja.
Starting from the XVII century until the XX century inclusive there was a great interest in Orientalist theme in French literature. During this period the majority of liench poets and writers such as F-R chateaubriand, Jules Verne, alphonsede lamartine, theophile Gautier, George Sand, Onore de Balsak created a number of works dedicated to the Orientalist theme.
Fransua – Marie Arouet Voltaire’s Zadig or the Book of Fate, Zaire, Fanaticism, Scythains created by him in the is XVIII century made the Orientalist theme even more topikal [Ñàôðîíîâà Í.Í.: 38-39]. Furthemore, in XIX century influenced by Volter’s works Victor Hugo published Canaris, The Lost Battle, Moonlight, Les Djins, Ecstsy, Hazrat Mohammad L’an Neuf De L’HEGIRE, the Cedar tree (Le Cedre), as part of Oriental motives, which once again confirmed the existing interest of French Literature in Orientalist theme. It’s Hugo’s “ Cedar - tree” (Le Cedre) poem that takes a special place in the Orientalist theme. In order to study the issue of invisibility in the poem, first of all, the question to be ansivered is the follouring:
Why was the poem called Cedar tree and not any other tree? Qu’ran has depicted a variety of tress e.g. sharon fruit, olive or fig trees. Or what is the connection betiveen the cedar – tree and the poem dedicated to prophet Mohammad? [Èñìàèëîâ Ð.: 81-83]. It should be emphasized that even after reading the poem itself the main reason for choosing the title of the poem still remains unclear. There arises a question. “ What is the meaning of a Cedar tree? What does it symbolize?”
Hoping to cast some light on the abovementioned question it is necessary to refer to Qur’an.
Surah 53 of Holy Qur’an contains the folaving ayes:
14. Near sidrat – ul – Muntaha (lote – tree of the utmost boundary). 15. Nearit the Paradise of Abode. 16. When that covered the lote – tree which did cover it!
Ziya Bunyatov, interpreter of Qur’an staled in the remarks of aye 16 that it Implies angels and birds, i.e. the Cedar tree is covered by angels and birds Another surah where the Cedar – tree is mentioned is Surah 56 “Al – Wagi’ah” (the Event) aye 28:
- They will be among thornless lote – tress.
One more thing worth mentioning is that the Cedar tree also comes across in the works of great poet Nizami Ganjavi “ The treasury of Mysteries”, “Khosrov and Shereen”, “Leyli and Majnun”, “Seven Beauties”. The tree is mentioned in these poems in regards with their “heavenliness” [Nizami Gəncəvi]. Thus, Cedar tree is the name of a legendary tree growing in the 7 th Heaven. A.H. (Aly Himmet) Berki and O. Kaskioglu note in their “Hatemul – Anbiya Hazrati Mohammad and Hiss Life” the follaving: Cedar havenly is the unique tree capable of emraing the Heavens. There is nothing beyond. No angel or prophet could reach beyond. Only God and none except God can go beyond [Qurani-Kərim].
All the above – mentioned references testify to the fakt that it was no mere coincidence that Victor Hugo named his poem “ La Cedre”. The professional of romantic style Hugo creates a thralgh – out romantic poem.
“Jan dreamt. His eyes were closed.”
Stars galore and ocens of thoughts Black angels glare through the crack in the rock. Hugo goes on to narrate that the deepl religious man Omar beholds prophets near the Red Sea coast a well as a Huge old Cedar tree weth thick foliage, which grew in the crack betiveen the rock [Zeynalov Ə.: 18-23].
Shekh Omar Pointed to the horizon towards the eagels’nests in the north and addressed the Cedar tree:
Pointing to the old Cedar tree.
The Eghe sea Jean dreaming in Patmos,
He pushed the tree saying,
“ Off you go! Spread your shade over that man”
These words are followed by:
“The tree moves hardly any branch of his”.
Why wouldn’t the tree reaet to Omar’s words in any way?
One of the reasons might be Hugo’s wish to keep the redaer anticipating.
Is it a te chnique of Hugo’s?
Hugo sticks to his genre till the end of the poem. Omar turns to the Cedar – tree once again! [Zeynalov Ə.: 16-22]
Saint (i.e. Omar) says to the tree:
“Go! And hits the tree with his cane”
As the story goes, the tree, ivhic was firmly attached to the ground with its roots, doesn’t move at all and remains in its place. Hugo keeps the reader tense.
How will the poem end?
One thing which is absolutely clear is that “ the Cedar tree understands Omar” Then, why doesn’t it obey Omar’s words? Even the cane blavs can farce it to move.
Shekh’s third appeal to the Cedar – tree sheds light on all ambiguities.
The Cedar tree (A.A.) didn’t stir and remained still.
Omar made three steps forward, raised his right hand and said;
- Go! He cried, go, in the name of God!
- Why didn’t you say this name before all?
- Said the tree and moved breaking the rock.
Several details need clar;fication here. Firstly, as regards to the word “invisible” no doubt, by this word he implies God. This form of addressing God is common among Azerbaijanis. “May” the invisible “bless you” – a common Azerbaijani expression. We tend to think, Hugo: makes use of this way of addressing God bonowing it from Oriental literature [Sərkəroğlu Ə.: 34-36].
“Shekh turned his eyes on the “Invisible” – “Le scheik, alors tourna ses yeux vers e’invisible”.
Secondly, we will consider another verse by Hugo: “ Fit trois pas,puis,ouvrant sa droite et la levant”.
“Made 3 sters, then turning to his right raised his right hand and said...”
Why did Omar rise his right hand not left?
Supposedly, Hugo deliberately chose to mention the right hand. Surah “Al-wagi” ah (The Event) aye - s 26 and 27 explain the significance of the right hand.
And those on the Right Hand – who will be those on the Right Hand!
They will be among thornless lote – tress.
These examples prove that Hugo had deep understanding and knavledge og Qur’an – Karim and was able to laborate his works by referral to Qur’an surahs.
Thirdly, it becomes obvious from Hugo’s poem that nothing is able to make the Cedar tree move its branch let alone itself. Only God’s word made the impossible possible. As it goes in [Besson Andre.: 43-46].
The poem: The giant Cadar “withdrew
Its roots from – the rocks
and turning into a big black
bird flew away”
Cracking down the rocks, Cedar flew away and over Tibet, Egypt and the Nile and landed in Patmos right near sleeping Jean. Jean opens his eyes and binds himself in the tree:
- Why all this hurry?
- Why not allow yourself time
To grow and blossom
The response is that God’s word or order Should be obeyed immediately Summarizing all, we can come to a remarkable conclusion on the subject of faith and prophet in Hugo’s artworks, That is the following:
1. The investigation revealed that the subject of Prophecy, invisibility and faith which was reflected in, the works of Voltaire, Goethe, Pushkin and Lermontov, was also referred to by a great writer, pat and thinker Victor Hugo. 2. In comparison with “Orientalist motives” published by Hugo in 1820, “The Legend of Centuries” of 1859 shows more powerful richer and more mature works reflecting excellent awarenss of Orientalist culbure and literature. 3. Voltaire’s “Essay on the Customs and the spirit of nations” of 1756, the translation of Qur’an by A.B. Bibrestein – Kazimirsky into French,: “Avesta” as wellas Qiyyon Potiye with his wide introduction to Qur’an and “The sacred Book of the East” and “East Culture” were the biggest source of Orientalist topic. 4. Hugo has neferred to certain surahs and aye – s of Qur’an in his works such as “The ninth year of Hijri” and “The Cedard tree”. 5. Hugo’s ability to use / quote Qur’an surahs and ayes in his works made a deep impression on Tunisian researcher A. Marzuki. Hugo introduced prophet Mohammad as a genius and saint. Hugo borrowed Oriental literature expressions: e.g. L’hegire – Hijri – Sheikh [Zeynalov A.: 54-58].
Orientalist motives can be traced in many other artworks of Hugo’s, which makes the subject of new studies and research work.
1. Èñìàèëîâ Ð. Àçåðáàéäæàíî-ôðàíöóçñêèå ëèòåðàòóðíûå ñâÿçè. – Áàêó: ßçû÷û, 1983. – 212 ñ.
2. Ñàôðîíîâà Í.Í. Âèêòîð Ãþãî. – Ì.: Ïðîñâåùåíèå, 1989. – 197 ñ.
3. Besson Andre. Victor Hugo. – Paris: Edition France Empire, 2001.–501 p.
4. Qurani-Kərim. – Bakı: Azərnəşr, 1991. – 714 s.
5. Nizami Gəncəvi. İsgəndərnamə. – Bakı: Lider, 2004. – 432 s.
6. Sərkəroğlu Ə. Nizami fransız mənbələrində. – Bakı. - 1999.144 s.
7. Zeynalov Ə. Fransız ədəbiyyatında Şərq.- Bakı: Oğuz evi, 1999. – 164 s.
8. Zeynalov Ə. Viktor Hüqo. - Bakı: Mütərcim, 2001. – 104 s.
9. Zeynalov A. Il etait un siecle. – Bakou: Mutardjim, 2010. – 240 p.
Ïîñòóïèëà â ðåäàêöèþ 13.02.2013 ã.