О роли автомобильного транспорта общего пользования в логистической системе Республики Узбекистан
ассистент кафедры менеджмента,
Ферганский политехнический институт.
About the role of public road transport in logistic system of the republic of Uzbekistan
Avulchaeva Feruza Zhurakuzievna,
Assistant department management Fergana Polytechnic Institute, Uzbekistan, Tashpulatov Kuddusbek,
Third year student, Fergana Polytechnic Institute, Uzbekistan.
В статье проведен анализ роли общественного автомобильного транспорта в логистической системе Республики Узбекистан. Проведенный системный анализ выявил изменения, произошедшие в транспортной системе Республики Узбекистан. Автор предлагает направления развития для увеличения показателей грузо- и пассажирооборота.
Ключевые слова: общественный автомобильный транспорт, международные перевозки, транспортные операции, нормативно-правовая база, области научного потенциала.
The article is written about the role of public road transport in logistic system of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The author describes the improvements and developments which took place in transport system of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Main focus is given to increasing need for transporting goods along with passengers’ transportation.
Keywords: public road transport, international transportation, transport operations, legal framework, areas of scientific potential.
The purpose of institutional and legal reforms implemented during the past few years for road transport is the improvement of road transport on the basis of fair competition for the right to provide transport services, the involvement of carriers of various forms of ownership into this sector.
Today, virtually every carrier in the country knows its legitimate place in the transport market, knows what a tender is, and knows its terms. Having obtained a license, he will definitely take part in an open tender to win the right to service a particular route.
Today, out of almost 4 thousand of passenger routes in the republic, 3.9 thousand or 98.1% are placed on a tender basis.
If, before the period of independence, the number of automobile operating companies in the republic was 265, their number now stands at more than 3,800. Automobilists of Uzbekistan had no opportunity for the international carriage of goods, now more than 120 carriers are engaged in this kind of transportation. The Republic of Uzbekistan has joined to 11 International Agreements and Conventions, regulating international road transportation, entered into bilateral agreements with 27 countries on international automobile, freight and passenger transportation.
The necessary legal base has been established for national road carriers for international road transportation.
During the years of independence, fleet of vehicles was updated with new buses by "Mercedes-Benz", "Daewoo", "Belda", "Otayol" and now with modern buses by "Mercedes-Benz" low-floor and "Isuzu", produced by Samarkand automobile plant. Fleet of trucks is being replenished by modern trucks like "MAN" and "Isuzu" which are produced in Uzbekistan.
It is generally known that the road transport business is quite attractive nowadays, so there operate not only professional motorists but, unfortunately, often people who have no basic understanding of the transportation process can be found. As a result, passengers are rendered low quality services, their lives and health are put in potential jeopardy.
In international practice, the requirements of professional competence are given particular attention. More than 40 participating countries of the European Conference of Ministers of Transport (ECMT) are guided by Consular directive of European Union (from October 1, 1998), which specifies sufficiently strict rules for access of businesses to transportation, namely only if carriers possess the diplomas, certificates and other evidence of professional qualifications have they the right to carry out transportation with the provision of security and an adequate level of service quality.
Republic of Uzbekistan expressed its intention to get the status of an observer country among the of members of the European Conference of Ministers, fully adhering to the course of the European Union regarding to qualification requirements of road transport carriers.
As a result of measures taken in recent years a steady growth in tendency of freight and passenger turnover formed, the network of passenger routes develops rapidly, road transport fully satisfies the growing demand for transportation of goods and passengers.
While in 1990 the amount of transported goods in the republic was 282.9 million tons and transportation work performed was - 5.9 billion tons/km., in 2011 the volume of transported goods was 1 billion 149 million tons, and freight turnover - 26.1 billion tons/km., i.e. growth was 4.0 and 4.4 times respectively.
The situation is analogous in passenger transport, whereas in 1990 2 billion 602 million passengers were transported with the passenger turnover of 21billion 983 million passenger/km, in 2011, the volume of passenger transportation made up 6 billion 245 million passengers and passenger turnover was 72 billion 545 million passengers/km or compared with the level of 1990 increased by 2.4 and 3.3 times respectively.
It will be more clear and weighty if we say that the proportion of the volume of transport operations carried out by road transport from the total amount is more than 90% for freight transportation and almost 99% - for passenger transportation.
Of course, a lot has been done in the public transport policy and the creation of an effective legal framework, but there is still much to do.
And in this case it is necessary to properly involve the scientific potential of the industry.
In our opinion, nowadays, scientific service of motor transportation complex has a sectorial nature and aimed primarily at solving individual problems. It is obvious that there is little research on the problems of internal and external marketing of transport services, interaction and complex development of various modes of transport. Researches on problems of international shipments need expansion and deeper elaboration.
Among the priority areas of scientific potential, we would name spheres such as:
a) identification of strategies for the improvement of the road transport management for the purpose of forming a steadily developing, efficiently and reliably functioning, ensuring safety of transportation and environmentally friendly system of road and river transport, which must meet the needs of the sectors of economy and population of the country and provide rendering of as high-quality services as possible to all layers of society.
b) direct involvement in the elaboration of national programs for the development of transport and communication in the Republic of Uzbekistan;
c) formation of program projects and participation in the development and improvement of the legislative and regulatory framework in the field of road and river transport with its maximal harmonization with the European Community legislation.
d) further , one of the most important tasks , efficiency of fulfillment of which is seen with the participation of scientific potential, should be identification of perspective areas of training and employment of staff potential in road and river transport, taking into account the perspectives of the field development, the introducing an effective system of retraining redundant personnel, staffing companies in the industry with workers who possess high professional skills , such as marketing, management of financial and human resources , logistics , information technology;
e) moreover, there is no doubt that it is absolutely necessary to conduct scientific and practical seminars, conferences and symposia on transport problems, training skills of conducting the market economy to chiefs and specialists in the field of road and river transport.
And this is by far not the whole list of urgent problems to be solved by employees of sectorial science in the short term.
Goals for road and river transport are quite serious and only by combining our rational efforts is it possible to achieve the desired results and provide an advanced development of road transport according to the demands of socio-economic development of the republic.
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Поступила в редакцию 22.01.2014 г.