Сущность формирования высокоэффективного кадрового потенциала в таможенных органах
Шарипова Дильрабо Надыровна,
кандидат экономических наук, доцент кафедры «Государственное регулирование ВЭД» Высшего военного таможенного института, Республика Узбекистан.
Essence of formation of highly effective personnel potential
in customs authorities
D. N. Sharipova
associate professor "State regulation of foreign trade activities" Higher military customs institute, cand.econ.sci., lieutenant colonel of customs service.
В данной статье раскрываются значение и роль внешнеэкономической деятельности Узбекистана как специальной экономической сферы, предопределяющей успешность реализации экономических реформ в обеспечении макроэкономического баланса. На основании сравнения послевоенной и современной таможни отмечаются функции таможенной службы, которая призвана поощрять развитие торговли, предоставлять возможность уменьшения формальностей для участников ВЭД, защищать интересы страны, привлекать инвестиции, способствовать развитию экспорта. Все вышеуказанные функции являются побудительным мотивом для формирования высокоэффективного кадрового потенциала в таможенных органах. Для этого необходимо глубокое понимание важности подготовки необходимого для системы резерва сотрудников, формирования высокоэффективного кадрового потенциала в таможенных органах, знать особенности, которые присуще этому управлению, а также реализовать комплекс мер, направленных на формирование высокоэффективного кадрового потенциала в таможенных органах.
Ключевые слова: функции таможенной службы, деловые и моральные качества работников системы таможенных органов, определение уровня знаний, профессионального мастерства, духовных и моральных качеств, конкретный вклад в работу, объективная оценка деятельности каждого работника, назначение на высокие должности, подготовка кадровых резервов, рациональное использование кадровых ресурсов, предотвращение коррупционных явлений.
In this article value and a role of foreign economic activity of Uzbekistan as the special economic sphere predetermining success of realization of economic reforms in ensuring macroeconomic balance reveal. On the basis of comparison of post-war and modern customs functions of customs service which is urged to encourage trade development are noted, to give opportunity of reduction of formalities for participants of foreign trade activities, to protect interests of the country, to attract investments, to promote export development. All above functions are incentive motive for formation of highly effective personnel potential in customs authorities. For this purpose the deep understanding of importance of preparation of a reserve of employees necessary for system, formation of highly effective personnel potential in customs authorities is necessary, to know features which it is inherent in this management, and also to realize the package of measures, directed on formation of highly effective personnel potential in customs authorities.
Keywords: functions of customs service, business and moral qualities of employees of system of customs authorities, definition of level of knowledge, professional skill, spiritual and moral qualities, concrete contribution to work, objective assessment of activity of each worker, appointment to high positions, preparation of personnel reserves, rational use of personnel resources, prevention of the corruption phenomena.
In the course of reforming of the political and economic and social relations, paramount value is gained by a problem of development and realization of the independent state customs policy, including formation of its legislative and legal bases, creation of system of its institutional structures, urged to protect national interests of the country.
In the field of foreign trade activities the state significantly expanded a circle of the enterprises, the organizations and the enterprise structures which have acquired the right of an independent exit to a foreign market. Makes impact on their activity on export and import by means of tools of protectionist policy – means of tariff and non-tariff regulation.
For today foreign economic activity of Uzbekistan became the special economic sphere predetermining success of realization of economic reforms and ensuring internal balance.
The wide circulation of information technologies and globalization significantly change nature of cooperation between the countries. In information and technological society of the XXI century level of education of the nation, ability to realize it and to develop progressive technologies becomes defining factor in rivalry of the states. Therefore concentration of efforts of all interested parties in judgment of a role of customs service of Uzbekistan in development of economy and providing economic security of the country is timely.
Liberalization of foreign economic activity gigantic expanded the range of enterprises, organizations, institutions and private enterprises that had the right of access to foreign markets. In these conditions, the role of purposeful activities of state regulation of entrepreneurial activities in the field of international exchange of goods, works, services, information, results of intellectual activity. In this regard, the state must establish relevant customs regimes, the movement of goods and vehicles through customs border, to levy customs duties, approve of customs rules, to implement numerous other types of management activities and regulation of foreign economic activity. All it requires an understanding of the economic and social nature and values of the applied customs regimes, customs clearance, execution, control, correct determination of customs value determination of the quality of goods under the commodity nomenclature of foreign economic activity and other. The slightest deviation from statutory requirements and regulations will lead to lower economic development, growth of unemployment and dependence on competitors.
Earlier the customs was considered as obligatory compulsory means, had military organizational structure and the relations, and almost worldwide was the main source of obtaining the income for the state. After World War II with formation of the General agreement on trade and the tariffs the World Trade Organization Council for Customs Cooperation was created (now World Customs Organization) which allowed to expand trade circles to develop trade quicker. The customs began to be considered as the engine of welfare of the state. It is possible for function of customs service was characterized as follows:
• collecting the necessary income for the state;
• protection of citizens (weapon, public safety, protection of intellectual property rights, etc.);
• other tasks assigned to customs, health care, veterinary control, environment protection.
The modern customs has the specific structured organization, uses an effective control system, provides the services to the country, and uses modern information technologies, procedures. But everywhere in the world the customs is important, and in some countries in general the only collector of the income. The reason in: to simplicity of collection of the customs duties and collecting (directly when crossing border), in difference from difficulty of use of difficult system of the income from the taxes based on profit, etc. or the value added tax.
The modern customs carries out not only the above functions, but also encourages trade development, presents to possibility of reduction of formalities for participants of foreign trade activities, protects interests of the country, attracts investments, promotes export development.
With liberalization of foreign economic activity the circle of the enterprises, the organizations of establishments and the separate enterprises which have acquired the right of an exit to a foreign market huge extended. The role of purposeful activity of the state increases in these conditions on regulation of business activity in the field of the international exchange of goods, works, services, information, results of intellectual activity. In this regard the state is urged to establish the corresponding customs regulations, movement of goods and vehicles through customs border, to raise customs payments, to approve customs rules, to carry out numerous other types of administrative activity and regulation of foreign trade activities. All this demands understanding of economic and social essence and value of applied customs regulations, implementation of customs inspection, registration, control, the correct determination of customs cost, definition quality of goods according to the nomenclature of goods subject to foreign trade, etc. The slightest derogation from the established requirements and standards will lead to decrease in economic development, growth of unemployment and dependence on competitors.
All above is incentive motive for formation of highly effective personnel potential in customs authorities. It is known that there are three approaches in understanding of a role of customs service in country safety: European, American and Asian. All of them, having one purpose, solve a problem by means of various forms and methods. However in all customs services of the world priority significance is attached to formation of the highly effective personnel potential, capable to solve these problems. Thus continuous professional education of shots is considered an urgent need for achievement both nation-wide, and local tasks.
The analysis of activity of the international organizations shows that problems of continuous education outgrew interests of the certain state and accepted global character. In decisions of the World forum on the social development, taken place in Copenhagen in 1995 it is noted that the key instrument of achievement of stability of an economic situation of the country is accumulation and preservation of the human capital, "carrying out in life of the strategy inducing people to support, improve and modify the skills and abilities during all life by means of education and vocational training".
In professional education of shots as well as in economy, there are the universal tendencies which ignoring will inevitably lead to negative consequences. Among them - advance of educational services to the person by means of technologies of open distance learning, increase in expenses for education and essential increase of their efficiency, creation of conditions for attraction of financial resources from non-budgetary sources, etc.
For deeper understanding of importance of formation of highly effective personnel potential in customs authorities it is necessary to know features which it is inherent in this management. It is possible to refer pronounced focus of management to them on the end result of office activity; combination of administrative activity in system with work as participants of foreign trade activities; implementation of powers of public administration; admissibility of reasonable risk in management process; dynamism in management process in the conditions of an antagonism of customs officers with unfair participants of foreign trade activities, smugglers and their helpers; relative uncertainty of conditions in which control is exercised.
Considering the aforesaid, one of the main directions of customs policy is personnel policy: preparation of a reserve of employees necessary for system, and also realization of the package of measures, directed on formation of highly effective personnel potential in the customs authorities, the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan carried out on the basis of the Resolution of August 10, 2011 №RP-1595 "About measures for further improvement and increase of efficiency of activity of bodies of the public customs service".
For execution of the priorities following from this Resolution of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan by customs authorities the plan of measures is developed: development of the "Provision on Customs Posts on Categories" project; revision of an operating order of functioning of the customs posts, assuming division between employees of a customs post of functions on carrying out customs inspection, customs registration of freights and vehicles, check of correctness of calculation and customs payment control; development and statement "Order of a complex assessment of activity of customs officers"; the reannouncement of staff lists of customs authorities, taking into account new structures and system of categorization of customs posts; the organization of training of employees of customs posts on preparation and retraining courses; provision of housing for the customs officers renominated in other territorial administrations; providing again appointed employees of customs posts with workplaces, stock and special technical means; selection of candidates for positions of chiefs of extra category customs posts, and also representatives of Managements of own safety of customs authorities and inspection of customs complexes and posts; development of criteria of studying and selection of candidates for appointment to positions the categorized of customs posts.
Now for realization of these tasks the system of an assessment of overall performance of customs authorities is applied. The basis of system was formed by three criteria: increase of level of observance of the customs legislation, ensuring completeness and timeliness of payment of the customs duties, taxes and customs duties; improvement of quality of service by customs authorities, reduction of expenses of participants of foreign trade activities and the state, connected with customs registration and control; identification and suppression of arms trafficking, drugs, counterfeit production and other goods forbidden to import to the Republic of Uzbekistan. The state customs committee of the Republic of Uzbekistan carries out systematic work on optimization of structure and improvement of activity of customs authorities. The special attention is paid to divisions which provide realization of functions of customs authorities in the directions of customs registration and customs control, information technologically, product range and trade restrictions, investigations and inquiries. The established criteria of an assessment of overall performance of officials and the corresponding coefficients will allow defining extent of participation of the official in the decision set for the relevant division of customs authority of the tasks, quality and complexity of functional duties carried out by the official and their productivity. Such criteria as sense of duty, initiative and professionalism, responsibility and decision-making, are a basis of formation of highly effective personnel potential in customs authorities.
Carrying out these actions and use of system of an assessment of efficiency will allow to stimulate business and moral qualities of employees of system of customs authorities on compliance of a post not only for definition of level of knowledge, professional skill, spiritual and moral qualities, but also for the accounting of a concrete contribution to work and development of customs authorities, to give an objective assessment of activity of each worker, to help correctly to carry out appointment to high positions and to prepare personnel reserves, to provide customs authorities with qualified personnel, it is rational to use personnel resources, to prevent the corruption phenomena, mistakes, rash actions and other negative phenomena allowed at implementation of the customs legislation and administration.
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Поступила в редакцию 14.04.2014 г.