Военно-административные должности и звания в Хивинском ханстве в период правления династии Кунгратов (2-я половина XIX – начало XX вв.)
Ургенчский государственный университет, Узбекистан.
Military-administrative Posts and Ranks in the khanate of Khiva during the Reign of Kungirot Dynasty (2nd half of the XIXth century and the beginning of the 20th century)
Kuryazova Sanjarbek Sobirjonovich,
Sadullev Doniyorbek Xursandbekovich,
Ismailov Sobirjon Rashidbek o’g’li .
UrSU (Urganch, Uzbekistan).
Bu maqolada Xiva xonligida Qo’ng’irotlartlar hukmronligi davrida davlatdagi harbiy-ma’muriy amal va unvonlar hamda ularning vazifalari haqida qisqacha ma’lumot beriladi.
Keywords: military posts, mehtar, qoshbegi, head of emirs, nobleman, beklarbegi(head of governors), minister, spokesman, devan, inoq-adviser of khan(king), mahram(relatives from khan's wife), policeman, servant, leader of a hundred people, naqib(guard).
History embodies the profit of unique society in the period of profits collision.Time, the creator of human profit, is the author and heir of the chain of uncountable development and decline.
Researching special features of long century development of Uzbek government is one of the important issues of contemporary history.
The research being conducted now has not been separate research so far. Only little information was given by authors who worked on the history of the khanate of Khiva. These are the facts regarding the fields of castle, administrative-regional, military, religious posts and ranks.
Speaking about understanding rank bearers duties, administrative terminologies translations and comments as A.A.Syemyonov and M. Yo ldashev showed correctly, was a barrier for historians and orientalist [1, p. 1848].
The works written by scholars and travelers about government system, ranks and positions, duties have a great role.
For example, the works and booklets of L.F. Kostenko, L. Soboloyev, M.I. Ivanin, N.N. Muravyov, G.I. Danilovskiy, L.Vamberi, V.V. Bortold, A.A. Syemyonov, P.P.Ivanov, M.Yo ldashev, castle historians Ogahiy and Bayoniy and also scientific member of the Khiva Museum, uzbek national artist A. Boltayev and Sh. Vohidov are among the most valuable works.
Officials family tree was cited in different lists and documents in the archive of Khiva, introducing with their title and ranks properly has a big part for not only the building the system of the administrative office, but to learn the development process of Khiva government.
Military-administrative ranks: such as amiruloma, nobleman, beklarbegi, clan, bojbon, botirboshi, buxri, minister, representative, door-keeper, foreman, devan, doruchi, dorgi, hangman, leader of executioner, jigachi, imomi jilov, inoq, kutvol, mahram, mahramboshi, mahram dahboshi, rifleman, mehtar, mitiqsoz, policeman, mmufti askar, servant, naqib, assistant, ot chopar, patronage, pnjsadboshi , spohiy, sarboz, leader, colonel, sartib, sarhang, guard, tunotar, tugchi, tugchiboshi, topchi, tora, udaychi, shigavul, shotir, leader of a fifty men, eshikogasi, leader of a hundred men, mounted guard, leader of mounted guard, leader of a ten men, qilichkor, qozi askar, qozi urdu, watch, leader of a watch, qo shbegi, hokim.
Finance-tax office was perfect in the khanate of khiva, firstly, it was characteristic for for administrative apparatus of government. That is why officials working at this office have a special role in the country. the three men, mehtar, qo shbegi, and devan at finance-tax office.
As N.N. Muravyov cited, Khan's treasure was under the will of mehtar, he counted income-outcome, accepting foreign ambassadors and feeding them was also under his will. When the khan made a trip out of Khiva he believed to rule the khanate to mehtar, sometimes even the khan relied him his own governing power also [2, p. 60].
Mekhtar (persian word)-means big, grand, greatest. Mekhtar was chosen from closest people around khan and at the same time one of the khan's kinsman. Mekhtar was considered as the treasurer and prime minister.
"Qosh begi" the second minister was also the member of council.He was from qiyot-kungurot clan as the khan. He was considered as the representative of the clan in conflictive situation and everybody respected him [2, p. 60-61].
Qoshbegi (from turkish "qo'sh"- means military camp, "begi"-the chief,the head, the head of the military camp). Qoshbegi was the second minister in Khivian khanate(a lot of historians called this title as "the head of hunters').
Qoshbegi, devonbegi, mekhtar and yasovulboshi were the owners of military industrial ranks or the commanders of its departments and of course took part in battles.Qo'shbegi and mekhtar was paid by the khans special decree and they got salary according the ammount of taxation [3, p. 260].
The third minister was Devonbegi who acquired anoutstanding position in the country. Devonbegi(from persian, turkish "devon"-the department of tax and taxation, "begi"-the chief, the head)- the head of the tax and taxation branch of government.Devonbegi was the head of the tax-collectors' department in middle ages,later he was overloaded with all financial affairs of the country.
In XIX century.the owners of the above mentioned ranks took main part in social-political life of the khanate. In archieve notes there we can find special chapter which was called "Beklar"(the governors, ministers).
Bek (from turkish) was the name of the title. The word bek means in its origin the governor,but it was used with the meaning sir. Among central asian people the word meant the governor of the city or region. This title was given to the khan's relatives and other statesmen's children as the honorary degree.
The rank following after the rank "bek" was "beklarbegi". Beklarbegi (from turkish) was the honorary and military title was awarded to the chiefs of karakalpak and other nations. His main function was checking up the regular tax-collection from his tribe and controlling the tax delivery to the khan's treasure over. Beklarbegi(the assistant of the bek) was the commander of the troop he ruled over a number of "yuzboshi"(the leaders of hundreds) [4, p. 112, 113, 114].
It is known that, mekhtar, as the prime minister of the state he was the leader of external affairs of the country besides being responsable for finance, tax and charity affairs.In this sphere shigavul (a rank) was the direct assistant of the mekhtar.Shigavul, from turkish-mongolion , means the asssistant of mekhtar.
The activities of shigavuls were closely connected with the activities of "bukhri". Bukhri a the spy or secret service serviceman.As we can in the 60-notebook of the Khivian khanate archive, Bukhriy Makhmudbek, Bukhriy Bolokhon got 20 golden coins as the salary(at that time,the officials on the ranks of mekhtar, qoshbegi, devonbegi, bek, beklarbegi and shigavul got about 20 golden coins as wages pay) [4, p. 203-204].
As a result of administrative -territorial reforms implemented during the reign of Mukhammad Rakhimkhon, the khanate was devided into regions and destricts which were called "machit". All the administrative and political affairs concerning to the region were in hand and under control of "khokim"-governors and his "noib"-assistant, vice-governors.They were designated from the owners of large landlords, khan's kins and relatives and makhrams (from relatives of khan's wife).The Khokim or governor was the khan's representative in the region. The governors assistants "noib' , the cheif of hundreds"yuzboshi ' and "katkhudo" or leaders ruled the towns in the khanate. In the villages all affairs were under control of imams and "merob" [5, p. 2].
Khokim(from arabic) means the representative of khan in the regions. The khokims of the regionsprevileged the total supremecy right over the regions.But they had no right to sentence on the life of the on the criminal, because only the khan was previleged to this affair.
Yuzboshi was the assistant of the governor(khokim) in the towns.Noib(from arabic) means the assistant of the governor(khokim).They were designated from great landlords, khan's relatives, or makhram(relatives of khan's wife)s. There was also the title of "sardor" means the leader for the normadic tribes of turkmen, karakalpak, kazakh prople at that time. Sardor(from persian) means the commander of khan's army or military leader in the statesystems in Central Asia.
The state power consisted of not only courts, prisons or other violence setting ups but also the government included the so called "mirshablik bo'limi" , the department of police armed forces.
Mirshab(from arabic,persian "mir"-the chief, "shab"-night) has two meanings which of the first one means, night guard, the chief night guard.and the second meaning is the night governors of the towns, a rank in khanates of Central Asia, whose post is to control public decipline in towns.Mirshab began his working day after 6 pm everyday, because, at this time, all town markets were closed and in an hour the town gates were closed and the town abated.From this time, nobody shouldn't go out of the house and walk along the streets of the town.All who broke the rule were caught by the "mirshab" and brought to "mirshabkhona" or police office [6, p. 77].
In central Asian khanates the permanent soldiers of troop were called "Sarboz".Sarboz(from persian) means the regular or permanant soldier of the army. In Khivian khanate they were gathered during war times and they were about 30-100 thousand in an army.
The chief commander of the military forces in Khivian khanate was "Amir ul Ulamo" from arabic.Amir ulUlamo meant the the chief amir of amirs or the greatest of all amirs. Amir ul Ulamo from Chigatoy denasty period, was the commander of all military affairs. During the reign of amir Temur and orther Temuriyds, he was the chief supreme commander in some situations the amir's vice-executer, it was a title established in 1272(1855-1856) in the khanate [7, p. 376 a].
There was another rank of"Mingboshi"(the chief of thousand men) which in khivian khanate mean the chief of "yasavul"(mounted guard), but in Kukon khanate the title was given to the person who stands in second post after the khan.It means that "mingboshi'(from turkish) is a military and administrative title in khivian khanate which means he head of the Yasavul (from mongolion, means a small functionary or state official) and ruled the small military and administrative posts in the khanate.
Besides above mentioned ranks and titles, there were also the titles and posts of "sarkhang"(a responsable official on building defending fortresses), "kutvol"(who was responsable to reconstruct the the damages of the fortifield city), "sarkarda"(commander. troop leader), "nakib"(the title awarded to sayids and khodja who were considered the noblemen of the khanate), 'navkar"(khan', padishakh', sultan' and prominant lords' the permanent military serviceman).
In conclusion, we can say that historical process is the direct human development, but the foundation of civilizations and social life as its result, spiritual heritage of the society in its turnis connected with a person's spirituality and value.It is required to identify the future progress and forcast by comprehending the content of real development process as foundation of civilization.
1. Семёнов А.А. Бухарский трактат о чинах и звалиях и об обязаннщстих носителей их в средневековой Бухаре // СВ. 1848, №5.
2. Муравьёв Н.Н. Путешествие в Туркмению и Хиву в 1819-1820гг. гвардейского Генерального Штаба капитана Николоя Муравьёва, послонного к сию страну для переговоров. Ч. 1-2, -М., 1822. 60 б.
3. M. Yo’ldoshev. Ko`rsatigan asar. 260 b.
4. Ivanov P.P. Ko`rsatilgan asar. -112,113, 114 b.
5. Кун. Л.А. Культурный оазис Хивинского ханства //ТВ. 1874. – С.2.
6. Чориев З. Тарих атамаларининг қисқача изоҳли лўғати. – Т.: Шарқ, 1851. – 77 б.
7. Bayoniy. Xorazm tarixi. 376 a- b.
Поступила в редакцию 06.03.2015 г.