Áîëüøîé ïîýò, ïèñàòåëü, èñòîðèê è ó÷åíûé
Ðàõìàòîâà Çîèðà Õàêíàçàðîâíà,
ïðåïîäàâàòåëü Êàøêàäàðüèíñêîãî ÎÈÏÏÊÐÍO.
Great poet, writer, historian and scholar
Rahmatova Zoira Haqnazarovna,
Kashkadarya RIRPPDTQ, Karshi city, Kashkadarya region
Republic of Uzbekistan.
Zahiriddin Muhammad Bobur was a great poet, writer, historian and a scholar besides being a famous statesman and a skilful military leader. Erskin who translated “Boburnoma’ into English told about Bobur this: … among all kings of Asia we can’t find any other king who can be equal to Bobur taking into account his generosity, bravery, talent and his love for art and literature.
Bobur was always engaged in constant wars and crusades from the age of 12 till the end of his life. But, despite this he got a deep and wide knowledge and became one of the most famous scholars of his time thanks to his finest talent. Wherever he was he established close relations with the representatives of science, art and literature, patronized them and organized different scientific-literary talks and discussions.
From the age of 16-17 Bobur began going in for literary activity. When he speaks about the events of the years of 905 – 906 (1499 - 1500) in his “Boburnoma” he says: “those days I only used to write a verse couples, but I didn’t use to write gazals.”
Bobur studies the rich literary heritage of Uzbek literature, especially Alisher Navai’s and literary experience of Persian – Tajik literature, creates new, original poems in the Uzbek and Persian – Tajik languages, compiles two divans  and in one of them he collects his poems written in the Uzbek language and in the latter he gathers the ones written in Persian – Tajik. Despite their ideological – artistic confrontation his lyrics became a great contribution to the progress of the secular Uzbek literature with its liveliness, being full of emotions and rich word stock. The greatest and finest work by Bobur which made him worldwide well-known, the book which was put in equal place to the Notes of Julius Caesar by the European orientalists, including Vambary is “Boburnoma”. “Boburnoma” is a historical-artistic work. It is an invaluable memorial of the Uzbek prose besides being a historical source. Besides that “Boburnoma” is a work which gives significant information in Geography, Ethnography, Nature, Medicine and other scientific spheres. It is an important memorial of the Uzbek language.
Bobur created an alphabet “Hatti Boburiy” in 1503 – 1504 when he realized that Arabian alphabet was not very corresponding to the Uzbek language and its pronunciation peculiarities. Though this alphabet was not put into practice the idea of creating and putting it into practice was a great event and courage. Because at that time any attempt of trying to change the Arabian alphabet was considered to be against to Islam by the representatives of the religion. The important point of “Hatti Boburiy” was that vowels were expressed not in the form of “zer - zabar” marks but in the form of special letters.
Bobur created several important works concerning to different branches of science. One of those works is his pamphlet about aruz, and this pamphlet is named “Mufassal” in the post-script added in “Boburnoma”. The year of writing the pamphlet has not been exactly determined yet, it was approximately written in the 1525s. The pamphlet gives wide range of information about the theory of aruz. The work consists of two chapters, the first is devoted to “hijos” making up “rukn” and their types, “rukns” and “zihofs”, “bahr” and “doira”, the latter is about the problems of “vazn” and “takte”. Bobur gives information about 537 vazns in 21 bahrs. He shows 9 doiras of aruz bahr and characterizes them. And he says that he has made up a new “doira” named “Mujtalibai mukhtaria” on the base of “hazaji makbuz” with “ramali makfuf”. In interpreting some phenomenon of aruz he demonstrates samples from Persian – Tajik and Turkish (especially Uzbek) poetry. He pays much attention to experimenting and analyzing vazn of Turkish poetry. He compares Turkish aruz to Arabian and Persian – Tajik ones and studies 44 zihof made off 8 rukns and their “farrs” thoroughly. He explains their rules and the ways of producing them. He gives information about folk poetry and their types. In the work there are given extracts from the poems by more than 60 poets of the X – XVI centuries. Some of them can seldom be found in other sources or can’t be at all. Taking it into consideration, we can say that the pamphlet is an invaluable source in studying Persian – Tajik literature.
Bobur also did much work in the sphere of music. Ha created one of the “savt” of “chorgoh” and wrote a pamphlet “The knowledge of music”. He also wrote a work “Harb ishi” (Military tactics). But neither his work on music nor the other has been kept.
In addition to his literary and scientific works he wrote religious-muezzinian works. He writes a poetic work “Mubayyin” which is about principles of Islam, problems of tax and Islamic religious law for his elder son Humoyun in 1521. He wrote this book as a manual for his son and others. This book was an important means in fixing the Indian tax standards. In 1905 this book was printed in the lithographical office of Gulom Hasan in Tashkent under the name of “Mubayyinul-islam”.
Bobur very worshiped Khoja Ubaydulla Ahror who was one of the nakshbandian sheikhs. In 1528 he translates the pamphlet “Volidia” by Khoja Ubaydulla Ahror from Persian-Tajik into Uzbek. In 1912 it was printed in Istanbul.
As a conclusion we can say that the scientific – literary heritage of our great grandfather who was a master of multifaceted creative activity makes great importance nowadays too.
Bibliography and references
1. Bobur Z.M. “Boburnoma” T. O’qituvchi HMU 2015 y. 450 b.
2. Mallayev N. O’zbek adabiyoti tarixi T. : O’qituvchi 1980 659 b.
Ïîñòóïèëà â ðåäàêöèþ 24.10.2017 ã.
 Gazal – a lyric poem.
 Divan – collection of poems.
 A poetry metre (alternate long or short syllables).
 In literature “foot”.
 Name of every 19 groups of poetry metre of aruz.
 Metre of Uzbek epic poetry.
 Tune in classical music alternating with leit-motif.
 Name of one of Uzbek classical music.